10-K
Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 FORM 10-K
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-36794
 The Chemours Company
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware
 
46-4845564
(State or other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1007 Market Street, Wilmington, Delaware 19899
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s Telephone Number: (302) 773-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock ($.01 par value)
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act).
Yes  o No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes  o No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  x No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes  x No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
 o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer" and "large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o    
Non-accelerated filer x
Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes o No  x

The registrant’s separation from E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company became effective on July 1, 2015.  As a result, there was no aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2015, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter. As of February 19, 2016, 181,376,949 shares of the company's common stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference

Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement relating to its 2016 annual meeting of shareholders (2016 Proxy Statement) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. The 2016 Proxy Statement will be filed with the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.
 
 


Table of Contents

The Chemours Company

Table of Contents
 
 
 
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Forward-Looking Statements
This section and other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements, within the meaning of the federal securities law, that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical or current fact. The words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "plan," "estimate," "target," "project" and similar expressions, among others, generally identify “forward-looking statements,” which speak only as of the date the statements were made. The matters discussed in these forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and in the Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and expectations of future events which may not be accurate or realized. Forward-looking statements also involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond Chemours’ control. Important factors that may materially affect such forward-looking statements and projections include:
Fluctuations in energy and raw material prices;
Failure to develop and market new products and optimally manage product life cycles;
Our substantial indebtedness and availability of borrowing facilities, including access to our revolving credit facilities;
Uncertainty regarding the availability of additional financing in the future, and the terms of such financing;
Negative rating agency actions;
Significant litigation and environmental matters, including indemnifications we were required to assume;
Failure to appropriately manage process safety and product stewardship issues;
Changes in laws and regulations or political conditions;
Global economic and capital markets conditions, such as inflation, interest and currency exchange rates, and commodity prices, as well as regulatory requirements;
Currency related risks;
Business or supply disruptions and security threats, such as acts of sabotage, terrorism or war, weather events and natural disasters;
Ability to protect, defend and enforce Chemours’ intellectual property rights;
Increased competition and increasing consolidation of our core customers;
Changes in relationships with our significant customers and suppliers;
Significant or unanticipated expenses, including but not limited to litigation or legal settlement expenses;   
Our ability to predict, identify and interpret changes in consumer preference and demand;
Our ability to realize the expected benefits of the separation;
Our ability to complete proposed divestitures or acquisitions and our ability to realize the expected benefits of acquisitions if they are completed;
Our ability to deliver cost savings as anticipated, whether or not on the timelines proposed;
Our ability to pay or the amount of any dividend; and,
Disruptions in our information technology networks and systems.
Additionally, there may be other risks and uncertainties that we are unable to identify at this time or that we do not currently expect to have a material impact on our business. The Company assumes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statement for any reason, except as required by law.
Unless the context otherwise requires, references herein to “The Chemours Company,” “The Chemours Company, LLC,” “Chemours,” "the Company", "our company", “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to The Chemours Company and its consolidated subsidiaries. References herein to “DuPont” refers to E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries (other than Chemours and its consolidated subsidiaries), unless the context otherwise requires.

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PART I
Item 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Chemours, a leading global provider of performance chemicals, began operating as an independent public company on July 1, 2015 (the Distribution Date) after separating from E. I. du Pont de Nemours (DuPont). We have three reporting segments: Titanium Technologies, Fluoroproducts and Chemical Solutions. Our products are key inputs into end-products and processes in a variety of industries. Our Titanium Technologies segment is the leading global producer of titanium dioxide (TiO2), a premium white pigment used to deliver whiteness, brightness, opacity and protection in a variety of applications. Our Fluoroproducts segment is a leading global provider of fluoroproducts, such as refrigerants and industrial fluoropolymer resins. Our Chemical Solutions segment is the leading North American provider of industrial and specialty chemicals used in gold production, oil refining, agriculture, industrial polymers and other industries.
Effective prior to the opening of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on July 1, 2015, DuPont completed the separation of the businesses comprising DuPont’s Performance Chemicals reporting segment, and certain other assets and liabilities, into Chemours, a separate and distinct public company. The separation was completed by way of a distribution of all of the then-outstanding shares of common stock of Chemours through a dividend in kind of Chemours’ common stock (par value $0.01) to holders of DuPont common stock (par value $0.30) as of the close of business on June 23, 2015 (the Record Date) (the transaction is referred to herein as the Distribution).
On the Distribution Date, each holder of DuPont's common stock received one share of Chemours' common stock for every five shares of DuPont's common stock held on the Record Date. The spin-off was completed pursuant to a separation agreement and other agreements with DuPont related to the spin-off, including an employee matters agreement, a tax matters agreement, a transition services agreement and an intellectual property cross-license agreement. These agreements govern the relationship between Chemours and DuPont following the spin-off and provided for the allocation of various assets, liabilities, rights and obligations. These agreements also include arrangements for transition services to be provided by DuPont to Chemours.
We operate 35 production facilities located in 11 countries and serve more than 5,000 customers across a wide range of end markets in more than 130 countries. The following chart illustrates the global scope of our businesses:


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Chemours is committed to creating value for our customers through the reliable delivery of high quality products and services around the globe. We create value for customers and stockholders through (i) operational excellence and asset efficiency, which includes our commitment to safety and environmental stewardship, (ii) strong customer focus to produce innovative, high-performance products, (iii) focus on cash flow generation through optimization of our cost structure, and improvement in working capital and supply chain efficiencies through our transformation plan (described in Chemours Strategy section below), (iv) organic growth and (v) creation of an organization that is committed to our corporate values of safety, customer appreciation, simplicity, collective entrepreneurship and integrity.
Many of Chemours' commercial and industrial relationships have been in place for decades. Our customers are comprised of a diverse group of companies, many of which are leaders in their respective industries. Our sales are not materially dependent on any single customer. As of December 31, 2015, no one individual customer balance represented more than five percent of Chemours’ total outstanding receivables balance and no single customer represented more than ten percent of our sales.
Chemours Five-Point Transformation Plan
Immediately after Chemours was launched as an independent public company, we began to make changes to our organization, cost structure and portfolio of businesses to transform our company into a higher growth chemistry company. The objectives of our multi-year five-point transformation plan are to improve our financial performance, streamline and strengthen our portfolio and reduce our leverage by:
1.
Reducing our costs through a simpler business model;
2.
Optimizing our portfolio to focus on our businesses where we have leading positions;
3.
Growing our market positions where we have competitive advantages;
4.
Refocusing our investments by concentrating our capital expenditures on our core businesses; and
5.
Enhancing our organization to deliver our values and support our transformation to a higher-value chemistry company.
Through cost reduction and growth, Chemours expects the transformation plan to deliver $500 million of incremental Adjusted EBITDA improvement over 2015 through 2017. Based on our anticipated cost reduction and growth initiatives, we would expect an approximately similar improvement in pre-tax income. Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure. For a discussion of our use of non-GAAP financial measures and reconciliations to the closest GAAP financial measures, see our Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures in Item 7. Through a combination of higher free cash flow from operations, lower capital spending, and potential proceeds from asset sales, the Company anticipates reducing its leverage ratio (net debt to Adjusted EBITDA) to approximately three times by 2017. This plan will allow us to narrow our focus to businesses with the highest return and earnings growth potential.

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In our Titanium Technologies segment, we have a long-standing history of delivering high-quality TiO2 pigment using our proprietary chloride technology. We are the largest global producer of TiO2, and our low-cost network of manufacturing facilities allows us to efficiently and cost-effectively serve our global customer base. We expect to further enhance our operating cost advantage with the start up of our second production line at our Altamira, Mexico facility in 2016. Chemours is well positioned to remain the lowest cost TiO2 producer and continue to meet our customers’ growing needs around the world.
In Fluoroproducts, we are one of two globally integrated producers making both fluorochemicals and fluoropolymers. In Fluorochemicals, we expect to market Opteon™, the world’s lowest global warming potential refrigerant, around the world as governments pass legislation that makes the use of low global warming potential refrigerants a requirement. We will also apply our application expertise across our fluoropolymers offerings, providing our customers with tailored products that have unique properties, including very high temperature resistance and high chemical resistance. We will continue to invest in research and development to remain a leader in these areas, and ensure that we are able to meet our customers needs as regulations change.
In Chemical Solutions, we are investing in our cyanides business to increase capacity by 50 percent. This additional capacity will allow us to serve the growing demand for sodium cyanide in the gold mining industry in the Americas. We also made significant progress on our strategic review of our portfolio, including the announced sale of the Beaumont Aniline facility, planned exit of the Reactive Metals business, and decision to retain the Methylamines business. We plan to complete our strategic review of this segment in 2016, which is ultimately expected to result in a streamlined set of businesses with reduced capital requirements.
We will maintain our commitment to responsible stewardship and safety for our employees, customers and the communities where we operate. Meeting and exceeding our customers’ expectations while conducting business in accordance with our high ethical standards will continue to be a primary focus for our company as we continue to transform Chemours into a higher-value chemistry company.
Segments
Additional information on our segments can be found in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Titanium Technologies Segment
Segment Overview
Chemours' Titanium Technologies segment is the leading global manufacturer of TiO2. TiO2 is a pigment used to deliver whiteness, opacity, brightness and protection from sunlight in applications such as architectural and industrial coatings, flexible and rigid plastic packaging, PVC window profiles, laminate papers, coated paper and coated paperboard used for packaging. We sell our TiO2 products under the Ti-PureTM brand name to over 800 customers globally. We operate four TiO2 production facilities: two in the United States (U.S.), one in Mexico and another in Taiwan. In addition, we have a large-scale repackaging and distribution facility in Belgium and operate a mineral sands mining operation in Starke, Florida. In total, we have a TiO2 production capacity of 1.05 million metric tons per year. We are expanding our TiO2 production facility in Altamira, Mexico which will increase our total TiO2 production capacity to 1.25 million metric tons per year.
Chemours is one of a limited number of producers operating a chloride process for the production of TiO2. We believe that our proprietary chloride technology enables us to operate plants at a much higher capacity than other chloride technology- based TiO2 producers, uniquely utilizing a broad spectrum of titanium-bearing ore feedstocks and achieving the highest unit margins in our industry. This technology, which operates at all of our production facilities, provides us with one of the industry’s lowest manufacturing cost positions. Our research and development efforts focus on improving production processes and developing TiO2 grades that help our customers achieve optimal performance in both their cost and product performance.
Demand for TiO2 comes from the coatings, paper and plastics industries and is highly correlated to growth in the global residential housing, commercial construction and packaging markets. Industry demand for TiO2 is generally expected to be in line with global GDP, and can be cyclical due to economic and industry-specific market dynamics.

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A breakdown of our TiO2 sales by region and end-market is shown in the charts below:
* include specialty applications
We sell approximately 20 different grades or forms of TiO2, each tailored for different applications to address undertone, dispersion and other application criteria for different end uses.
We have operated a titanium mine in Starke, Florida since 1949. The mine provides us with access to a low cost source of domestic, high quality ilmenite feedstock and supplies less than ten percent of our feedstock consumption needs. Co-products of our mining operations are zircon (zirconium silicate) and staurolite minerals. We are a major supplier of high quality zircon in North America, primarily focused on the precision investment casting (PIC) industry, foundry and specialty applications, and ceramics. Our staurolite blasting abrasives, sold as Starblast™, are widely used in steel preparation and maintenance, and paint removal.
Industry Overview and Competitors
Worldwide effective capacity in 2015 was estimated to be approximately 6.5 million metric tons. This capacity base was more than sufficient to serve worldwide demand for TiO2 in 2015 of approximately 5.5 million metric tons.

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The global TiO2 market in which we operate is highly competitive. Competition is based primarily on product price, quality and technical service. We face competition from producers using the chloride process as well as those using the alternative sulfate process. Furthermore, due to the low cost of transporting TiO2, there is also competition between producers with production facilities located in different geographies, with some cost advantage belonging to the production facility that is closest to the customer.
In most regions of the world, we compete primarily against large multinational producers such as The National Titanium Dioxide Company, Ltd. (Cristal), Huntsman International LLC, Kronos Worldwide, Inc. and Tronox Limited. In recent years, manufacturing capacity of those multinational producers has only modestly increased, primarily due to de-bottlenecking of the industry’s existing production facilities. Overall, in 2015, approximately 250,000 metric tons of capacity was taken offline and another approximately 170,000 metric tons were temporarily shut down due to worldwide oversupply of TiO2.
In addition to these multinational producers, we also compete against numerous other producers, including producers in China, who, although generally having smaller facilities, have significantly expanded their TiO2 production capacity over the last decade. Most Chinese producers utilize the sulfate process to produce a product line that, while cost competitive in China, is suitable principally for lower-end and limited mid-range applications. The quality differential and logistic considerations has limited the global export of TiO2 produced in China to approximately 600 thousand metric tons in 2015, a decline of 3% from 2014. TZMI, an independent industry consultant, indicated that environmental factors and weak prices and margins contributed to the idling of capacity in China, some of which is likely to be permanent. The net permanent capacity reduction in China is estimated to be approximately 30,000 metric tons in 2015. In 2015, two of the largest Chinese domestic producers, Henan Billions and Lomon, announced their intention to merge. This transaction, currently under regulatory review, is believed to be a potential trend in China toward additional consolidation and more efficient production facilities.
Raw Materials
The primary raw materials used in the manufacture of TiO2 are titanium-bearing ores, chlorine, calcined petroleum coke and energy. We source titanium-bearing ores from a number of suppliers around the globe, who are primarily located in Australia, South Africa, Canada and Mozambique. To ensure proper supply volume and to minimize pricing volatility, we generally enter into contracts in which volume is requirement-based and pricing is determined by a range of mechanisms structured to help us achieve competitive pricing relative to the market. We typically enter into a combination of long- and mid-term supply contracts and source our raw material from multiple suppliers across different regions and from multiple sites per supplier. Furthermore, we typically purchase multiple grades of ore from each supplier to limit our exposure to any single supplier for any single grade of ore in any given time period. Historically, we have not experienced any problems renewing such contracts for raw materials or securing our supply of titanium-bearing ores.
We play an active role in ore source development around the globe, especially for those ores which can only be used by us, given the capability of our unique process technology. Supply chain flexibility allows for ore purchase and use optimization to manage short-term demand fluctuations and for long-term competitive advantage. Our process technology and ability to use lower grade ilmenite ore gives us the flexibility to alter our ore mix to the lowest cost configuration based on sales, demand and projected ore pricing. Lastly, we have taken steps to optimize routes for distribution and increase storage capacity at our production facilities.
Transporting chlorine, one of our primary raw materials, can be costly. To reduce our exposure to this expense, we have a chlor-alkali production facility run by a third party that is co-located at our Johnsonville,Tennessee site, reducing our need to transport chlorine. Calcined petroleum coke is an important raw material input to our process. We source calcined petroleum coke from well-established suppliers in North America and China, typically under contracts that run multiple years to facilitate material and logistics planning through the supply chain. Distribution efficiency is enhanced through use of bulk ocean, barge and rail transportation modes.
Energy is another key input cost into the TiO2 manufacturing process, representing approximately 10 percent of the production cost. Chemours has access to natural gas based energy at our U.S. and Mexico TiO2 production facilities and our Florida minerals plant, supporting advantaged energy costs given the low cost shale gas in the U.S. We continually evaluate investments to replace aging coal- and oil-based steam supply assets with natural gas at our sites. Natural gas-based cogeneration of steam and electricity is being extended as part of the major expansion at one of our TiO2 production facilities.

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Sales, Marketing and Distribution
We sell the majority of our products through a direct sales force. We also utilize third-party sales agents and distributors to expand our reach. TiO2 represents a significant raw material cost for our customers and as a result, purchasing decisions are often made by our customers’ senior management team. Our sales organization works to develop and maintain close relationships with key decision makers in our value chain.
In addition, our sales team and technical service team work together to develop relationships with all layers of our customers’ organizations to ensure that we meet our customers’ commercial and technical requirements. When appropriate, we collaborate closely with customers to solve formulation or application problems by modifying product characteristics or developing new product grades.
To ensure an efficient distribution, we have a large fleet of railcars, which are predominantly used for outbound distribution of products in the U.S. and Canada. A dedicated logistics team, along with external partners, continually optimizes the assignment of our transportation equipment to product lines and geographic regions in order to maximize utilization and maintain an efficient supply chain.
Customers
Globally, we serve approximately 800 customers through our Titanium Technologies segment. In 2015, our ten largest Titanium Technologies customers accounted for approximately 30 percent of the segment’s sales. No single Titanium Technologies customer represented more than eight percent of our segment sales in 2015. Our larger customers in the U.S. and Europe are typically served through direct sales and tend to have medium- to long-term contracts with annual volume requirements and periodic price adjustment mechanisms. We serve our small- and mid-size customers through a combination of our direct sales and distribution network.
Our direct customers in Titanium Technologies are producers of decorative coatings, automotive and industrial coatings, polyolefin masterbatches, polyvinylchloride window profiles, engineering polymers, laminate paper, coatings paper and coated paperboard. We focus on developing long-term partnerships with key market participants in each of these sectors. We also deliver a high level of technical service to satisfy our customers’ specific needs, which helps us maintain strong customer relationships.
Seasonality
The demand for TiO2 is subject to seasonality because certain applications, such as decorative coatings, are influenced by weather conditions or holiday seasons. As a result, our TiO2 sales volume is typically lowest in the first quarter, highest in the second and third quarters and moderate in the fourth quarter. This pattern applies to the entire TiO2 market, but may vary by region, country or application. It can also be altered by economic or other demand cycles.
Fluoroproducts Segment
Segment Overview
Our Fluoroproducts segment is the global leader in providing fluorine-based, advanced material solutions. The segment creates products that have unique properties such as high temperature resistance, high chemical resistance and unique di-electric properties for applications across a broad array of industries. We are the global leader in providing fluoroproducts, such as refrigerants and industrial fluoropolymer resins and derivatives. We have a leading position in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants and are a leader in the development of sustainable technologies like Opteon™, a line of low Global Warming Potential (GWP) hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) refrigerants and foam expansion agents, which also have a zero ozone depletion footprint. Opteon™ was jointly developed with Honeywell International, Inc., in response to the European Union's (EU) Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) Directive. This new patented technology offers similar functionality to current HFC products but meets or exceeds currently mandated environmental standards. We are the market leader in fluoropolymer resins and downstream products and coatings, marketed under the well-known TeflonTM brand name. TeflonTM industrial resins are used in high-performance wire and cable and multiple components in high-tech processing equipment.
We led the industry in the Montreal-Protocol (1987) driven transition from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to the lesser ozone depleting hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and non-ozone depleting HFCs. In 1988, we committed to cease production of CFCs and started manufacturing non-ozone depleting HFCs in the early 1990s. Driven by new and emerging environmental legislations and standards currently being implemented across the U.S., Europe, Latin America and Japan, we are now commercializing Opteon™ and we expect increased adoption through 2017. Over the years, regulation has pushed the industry to evolve and respond to environmental concerns. We have and will continue to invest in research and development to ensure that we remain a leader and

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are able to meet our customers needs as regulations change. We are the market leader in fluoropolymer resins and downstream products and coatings, marketed under the TeflonTM brand.
The manufacturing of fluoroproducts is complex and involves intermediates that are highly corrosive and hazardous in complex processes. We have an industry-leading safety culture and apply world-class technical expertise to ensure that our operations are run safely and reliably. These capabilities also enable us to continuously improve production yields, reduce unplanned downtime and increase our throughput, which in turn improves our overall manufacturing efficiency and customer responsiveness.
Our capacity, innovative production processes, effective supply chain and sourcing strategies make us highly cost competitive in the fluoroproducts market. We use local contract manufacturing and joint venture partners in selected countries as a source of regional access and asset-light manufacturing to further enhance the overall cost position of our Fluoroproducts segment.
A breakdown of the Fluoroproducts segment's 2015 sales by region and product group is shown in the charts below:

We sell fluoroproducts through two product groups: Fluorochemicals and Fluoropolymers. Fluorochemicals products include refrigerants, foam expansion agents, propellants and fire extinguishants. Fluoropolymers products include various industrial fluoropolymer resins, and serve a wide range of industrial and end-user applications spanning from wearable electronics to automotive, network cables, pipe lining and gaskets, corrosion resistance, surface protections, non-stick adhesion and thermal stability, among others. Fluorochemicals' refrigerant sales fluctuate by season as sales in the first half of the year generally are

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slightly higher than sales in the second half of the year; however, shifts in the product portfolio in recent quarters have partially offset this impact.
Industry Overview and Competitors
Our Fluoroproducts segment competes against a broad variety of global manufacturers, including Honeywell, Arkema, Mexichem, Daikin, Solvay and Dyneon, as well as local Chinese and Indian manufacturers. We have a leadership position in fluorine chemistry and materials science, a broad scope and scale of operations, market driven application development and deep customer knowledge.
Chemours has global leadership positions in the following fluoroproduct categories as set forth in the table below:
Fluoroproducts Leadership Positions
Product Group
  
Position
  
Key Applications
  
Key Competitors
Fluorochemicals
  
#1 Globally
  
Refrigeration and Air
conditioning
  
Honeywell, Arkema, Mexichem, Dongyue, Juhua
Fluoropolymers
  
#1 Globally
  
Diversified industrial
applications
  
Daikin, 3M, Solvay, Asahi Glass Company, Dongyue, Chenguang,
Whitford
Fluoroproducts demand growth is expected to be in line with growth in global GDP. Growth may expected to be higher than GDP in situations where, for environmental reasons, regulatory drivers constrain the market or drive the market toward lower global warming alternatives. Developed markets represent the largest fluoroproducts markets today. Middle class growth and the increasing demand for consumer electronics, telecommunications, automobiles, refrigerators, air conditioners and expanding infrastructure are all key drivers of increased demand for various fluoroproducts.
Raw Materials
The primary raw materials required to support the Fluoroproducts segment are fluorspar, chlorinated organics, chlorinated inorganics, hydrofluoric acid and vinylidene fluoride. These are available in many countries and not concentrated in any particular region.
Our supply chains are designed for maximum competitiveness through advantaged sourcing of key raw materials. Starting with our sourcing agreements, we use a mixture of fixed and market-based pricing and are covered by contracts with terms that span from two to ten years, except for purchases for resale from China that are negotiated on a monthly basis. Most qualified Fluorspar sources have market-based pricing. Although the fluoroproduct industry has historically relied primarily on fluorspar exports from China, Chemours has diversified its sourcing through multiple geographic regions and suppliers to ensure a stable and cost competitive supply. Our current supply agreements are generally in effect through 2020.
Sales, Marketing and Distribution
With more than 85 years of innovation and development in fluorine science, our technical, marketing and sales teams around the world have deep expertise in our products and their end-uses. We work with customers to select the appropriate fluoroproducts to meet their technical performance needs. We sell our products through direct channels and through resellers. Selling agreements vary by product line and markets served and include both spot pricing arrangements and longer term contracts with a typical duration of one year.
We maintain a large fleet of railcars, tank trucks and containers to deliver our products and support our supply chain needs. For the portion of the fleet that is leased, related lease terms are usually staggered, which provides us with a competitive cost position as well as the ability to adjust the size of our fleet in response to changes in market conditions. A dedicated logistics team, along with external partners, continually optimizes the assignment of our transportation equipment to product lines and geographic regions in order to maximize utilization and flexibility of the supply chain.
Customers
We serve approximately 4,000 customers and distributors globally and in many instances these commercial relationships have been in place for decades. No single Fluoroproducts customer represented more than 10 percent of the segment's sales in 2015.

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Seasonality
Seasonality in Fluorochemicals sales is driven by increased demand for residential, commercial and automotive air conditioning in the spring. This demand peaks in the summer months and declines in the fall and winter. Commercial refrigeration demand is fairly steady throughout the year, but demand is slightly higher during the summer months. There is no significant seasonality for Fluoropolymers, as demand is relatively consistent throughout the year.
Chemical Solutions Segment
Segment Overview
Our Chemical Solutions segment comprises a diverse portfolio of industrial and specialty chemical businesses primarily operating in the Americas. The Chemical Solutions segment’s products are used as important raw materials and catalysts for a diverse group of industries including, among others, gold production, oil refining, agriculture and industrial polymers. We are a leading North American provider of several Chemical Solutions products, including sodium cyanide and sulfuric acid. Chemical Solutions generates value through the use of market leading manufacturing technology, safety performance and product stewardship, and differentiated logistics capabilities.
As part of our transformation plan, we announced a strategic review of our Chemical Solutions segment, excluding Cyanides. In November 2015, we announced the sale of our Aniline facility in Beaumont, Texas to The Dow Chemical Company, subject to customary approvals and closing conditions, which is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2016. We also made significant progress on our strategic review of our portfolio, including the announced planned exit of the Reactive Metals business and decision to retain and improve the cost position of our Methylamines business. The remainder of our Chemical Solutions assets are still under strategic review, and we expect to conclude the process in 2016.
Chemical Solutions operates at 13 dedicated production facilities, which are primarily concentrated in North America. Chemical Solutions sells products and solutions through three primary product groups: Cyanides, Sulfur Products, and Performance Chemicals & Intermediates. Performance Chemicals & Intermediates business includes a number of product lines including Clean & Disinfect chemicals, Aniline, Methylamines, Glycolic Acid, Vazo™ free radical initiators and Reactive Metals. Our Chemical Solutions segment serves customers in a diverse range of end markets that we expect to generally grow in line with growth in global GDP.
A breakdown of Chemical Solutions’ 2015 sales by region and primary product groups is shown in the charts below.


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We sell products through three primary product groups.  The Cyanides product group includes sodium cyanide, hydrogen cyanide and potassium cyanide.  We are the market leader in solid sodium cyanide production in the Americas, which is used primarily by the mining industry for gold and silver production. The U.S.-based Sulfur Products group is a leading producer of both non-fuming sulfuric acid products and higher value sulfur derivative products (HVSDs) such as oleum, sulfur trioxide and chlorosulfonic acid. This product group also provides spent acid regeneration and sulfur gas recovery services to the oil refining industry, where our merchant regeneration capacity is ranked #1 and #2 in the U.S. Northeast and Gulf Coast regions, respectively. In the Performance Chemicals and Intermediates product group, we manufacture a wide variety of chemicals used in many different applications such as water treatment, cleaning (household, institutional and industrial), agricultural chemicals, textiles and electronics.
Industry Overview and Competitors
The industrial and specialty chemicals produced by our Chemical Solutions segment are important raw materials for a wide range of industries and end markets. We hold a long standing reputation for high quality and the safe handling of hazardous products such as sodium cyanide and sulfuric acid. We believe that we have leading cost positions in cyanides, sulfur products and our clean and disinfect products. Our competitive cost positions in these products are the result of our process technology, manufacturing scale, efficient supply chain and proximity to large customers. Our Chemical Solutions segment also holds, and occasionally licenses, what we believe to be the leading process technologies for the production of hydrogen and sodium cyanide, which are used in industrial polymers and in gold production.
Chemours has global leadership positions in the following product categories:
Chemical Solutions Leadership Positions
Product (Product Group)
 
Position
 
Key Applications
 
Key Competitors
Cyanides
 
#1 in Solid Sodium Cyanide in the Americas
 
Gold Production
 
Orica, Cyanco,
Samsung
Sulfur Products
 
#1 in Spent Acid Regeneration in U.S. Northeast Region
 
#2 in Spent Acid Regeneration in U.S. Gulf Coast Region
 
Refining
 
Ecoservices,
Chemtrade
Performance Chemicals & Intermediates
 
Leading positions in U.S. in number of products, e.g.:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chlorine Dioxide
 
Water treatment
 
Evoqua, OxyChem
 
 
Glycolic Acid
 
Household, institutional and
industrial cleaning, personal care
 
CABB, Taicang
Xinmao
 
 
OxoneTM
 
Recreational water treatment, dentures cleaning
 
United Initiators

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Raw Materials
Key raw materials for Chemical Solutions include ammonia, methanol, sulfur, natural gas, formaldehyde, hydrogen and caustic soda. We source raw materials from global and regional suppliers where possible and maintain multiple supplier relationships to protect against supply disruptions and potential price increases. To further mitigate the risk of raw material availability and cost fluctuation, Chemical Solutions has also taken steps to optimize routes for distribution, increase the storage capacity at our production facilities, lock in long-term contracts with key suppliers and increase the number of customer contracts with raw material price pass-through terms. We do not believe that the loss of any particular supplier would be material to our business.
Sales, Marketing and Distribution
Our technical, marketing and sales teams around the world have deep expertise with our products and their end markets. We predominantly sell directly to customers, although we also use a network of distributors for specific product lines and geographies. Sales may take place through either spot transactions or via long-term contracts.
Most of Chemical Solutions’ raw materials and products can be delivered by efficient bulk transportation. As such, we maintain a large fleet of railcars, tank trucks and containers to support our supply chain needs. For the portion of the fleet that is leased, related lease terms are usually staggered, which provides us with a competitive cost position as well as the ability to adjust the size of our container fleet in response to changes in market conditions. A dedicated logistics team, along with external partners, continually optimizes the assignment of our transportation equipment to product lines and geographic regions in order to maximize utilization and flexibility of the supply chain.
The strategic placement of our production facilities in locations designed to serve our key customer base gives us robust distribution capabilities.
Customers
Our Chemical Solutions segment focuses on developing long-term partnerships with key market participants. Many of our commercial and industrial relationships have been in place for decades and are based on our proven value proposition of safely and reliably supplying our customers with the materials needed for their operations. Our reputation and long-term track record is a key competitive advantage as several of the products’ end users demand the highest level of excellence in safe manufacturing, distribution, handling and storage. Chemical Solutions has a Department of Transportation Special Permits and Approvals in place for distribution of various materials associated with each of our business lines as required. Our Chemical Solutions segment serves over a thousand customers globally. The largest Chemical Solutions customer represented approximately 10 percent of segment sales in 2015.
Seasonality
Our sales are subject to minimal seasonality. Our Sulfur Products business is influenced by seasonal fluctuations because in the summer months we typically sell a higher volume of acid due to oil refinery customers operating at higher capacities.
Intellectual Property
Intellectual property, including trade secrets, certain patents, trademarks, copyrights, know-how and other proprietary rights, is a critical part of maintaining our technology leadership and competitive edge. Our business strategy is to file patent and trademark applications globally for proprietary new product and application development technologies. We hold many patents, particularly in our Fluoroproducts segment, as described herein. These patents, including various patents that expire during the period of 2016 to 2034, in the aggregate, are believed to be of material importance to our business. However, we believe that no single patent (or related group of patents) is material in relation to our business as a whole. In addition, particularly in our Titanium Technologies segment, we hold significant intellectual property in the form of trade secrets and, while we believe that no single trade secret is material in relation to our combined business as a whole, we believe they are material in the aggregate. Unlike patents, trade secrets do not have a predetermined validity period, but are valid indefinitely, so long as their secrecy is maintained. We work actively on a global basis to create, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. The protection afforded by these patents and trademarks varies based on country, scope of individual patent and trademark coverage, as well as the availability of legal remedies in each country. Although certain proprietary intellectual property rights are important to the success of our company, we do not believe that we are materially dependent on any particular patent or trademark. We believe that securing our intellectual property is critical to maintaining our technology leadership and our competitive position, especially with respect to new technologies or the extensions of existing technologies. Our proprietary process technology is also a source of incremental income through licensing arrangements.

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Our Titanium Technologies segment in particular relies upon unpatented proprietary knowledge and continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position in this space. Our proprietary chloride production process is an important part of our technology and our business could be harmed if our trade secrets are not maintained in confidence. In our Titanium Technologies intellectual property portfolio, we consider our trademark Ti-PureTM to be a valuable asset and have registered this trademark in a number of countries.
Our Fluoroproducts segment is the technology leader in the markets in which it participates. We have one of the largest patent portfolios in the fluorine derivatives industry. In our Fluoroproducts intellectual property portfolio, we consider our FreonTM, OpteonTM, TeflonTM, VitonTM and KrytoxTM trademarks to be valuable assets.
Our Chemical Solutions segment is a manufacturing and application development technology leader in a majority of the markets in which it participates. In our Chemical Solutions intellectual property portfolio, we consider our VirkonTM and OxoneTM trademarks to be valuable assets. Trade secrets are one of the key elements of our intellectual property security in Chemical Solutions as most of the segment’s manufacturing and application development technologies are no longer under patent coverage.
At separation, certain of our subsidiaries entered into an intellectual property cross-license agreement with DuPont, pursuant to which (i) DuPont has agreed to license to Chemours certain patents, know-how and technical information owned by DuPont or its affiliates and necessary or useful in Chemours’ business, and (ii) Chemours has agreed to license to DuPont certain patents owned by Chemours or its affiliates and necessary or useful in DuPont’s business.  In most circumstances, the licenses are perpetual, irrevocable, sublicenseable (in connection with the party’s business), assignable (in connection with a sale of the applicable portion of a party’s business or assets, subject to certain exceptions) worldwide licenses in connection with the current operation of the businesses and, with respect to specified products and fields of use, future operation of such businesses, subject to certain limitations with respect to specified products and fields of use.
Research and Development
We perform research and development activities in all of our segments with the majority of our efforts focused in the Fluoroproducts segment. The Fluoroproducts segment efforts center on developing new sustainable fluorochemicals and new applications and formulations for fluoropolymers that meet customers’ technical requirements. In Titanium Technologies and Chemical Solutions, our efforts are focused on process technology to reduce cost and maintain safety and stewardship standards. The table below sets forth the last three years of research and development expense by segment:
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Titanium Technologies
$
33

 
$
47

 
$
48

Fluoroproducts
50

 
79

 
93

Chemical Solutions
14

 
17

 
23

Total
$
97

 
$
143

 
$
164

Backlog
In general, the Company does not manufacture its products against a backlog of orders and does not consider backlog to be a significant indicator of the level of future sales activity. Production and inventory levels are based on the level of incoming orders as well as projections of future demand. Therefore, the Company believes that backlog information is not material to understanding its overall business and should not be considered a reliable indicator of the Company's ability to achieve any particular level of revenue or financial performance.
Environmental Matters
Information related to environmental matters is included in several areas of this report: (1) Environmental Proceedings, (2) Risk Factors, (3) Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and (4) Notes 3 and 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Available Information
Chemours is subject to the reporting requirements under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Consequently, the Company is required to file reports and information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including reports on the following forms: annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The public may read and copy any materials the Company files with the SEC at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
The Company's annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports are also accessible on the Company's website at http://www.chemours.com by clicking on the section labeled "Investor Relations", then on "Filings & Reports" and then on "SEC Filings." These reports are made available, without charge, as soon as is reasonably practicable after the Company files or furnishes them electronically with the SEC.
Employees
We have approximately 8,100 employees, approximately 24% of whom are represented by unions or works councils. Management believes that its relations with its employees and labor organizations are good. There have been no strikes or work stoppages in any of our locations in recent history. 

Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
The company's operations could be affected by various risks, many of which are beyond our control. Based on current information, we believe that the following identifies the most significant risk factors that could affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. See “Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements” for more details.
Risks Related to Our Business
Conditions in the global economy and global capital markets may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Our business and operating results may in the future be adversely affected by global economic conditions, including instability in credit markets, declining consumer and business confidence, fluctuating commodity prices and interest rates, volatile exchange rates, and other challenges such as the changing financial regulatory environment that could affect the global economy. Our customers may experience deterioration of their businesses, cash flow shortages, and difficulty obtaining financing. As a result, existing or potential customers may delay or cancel plans to purchase products and may not be able to fulfill their obligations to us in a timely fashion. Further, suppliers could experience similar conditions, which could impact their ability to supply materials or otherwise fulfill their obligations to us. Because we have significant international operations, there are a large number of currency transactions that result from international sales, purchases, investments and borrowings. Also, our effective tax rate may fluctuate because of variability in geographic mix of earnings, changes in statutory rates, and taxes associated with repatriation of non-U.S. earnings. Future weakness in the global economy and failure to manage these risks could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows in future periods.
Market conditions, as well as global and regional economic downturns that adversely affect the demand for the end-use products that contain TiO2, fluoroproducts or our other products, could adversely affect the profitability of our operations and the prices at which we can sell our products, negatively impacting our financial results.
Our revenue and profitability is largely dependent on the TiO2 industry and the industries that are end users of our fluoroproducts. TiO2 and our fluoroproducts, such as refrigerants and resins, are used in many “quality of life” products for which demand historically has been linked to global, regional and local GDP and discretionary spending, which can be negatively impacted by regional and world events or economic conditions. Such events are likely to cause a decrease in demand for our products and, as a result, may

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have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. The future profitability of our operations, and cash flows generated by those operations, will also be affected by the available supply of our products in the market.
Additionally, our profitability may be affected by the market for, and use of, by-products generated as part of our manufacturing processes. A significant decrease in the demand for such products could adversely impact our operations by increasing the cost of our products and reducing our profit margins.
If we are unable to execute our cost reduction plans successfully, our total operating costs may be greater than expected, which may adversely affect our profitability.
We have announced a transformation plan that includes a number of cost saving measures. We have implemented a number of these measures and have realized a portion of the anticipated benefits. While we continue to search for opportunities to reduce our costs and expenses to improve operating profitability without jeopardizing the quality of our products or the effectiveness of our operations, our success in achieving targeted cost and expense reductions depends upon a number of factors such as timing of execution, market condition, and regulatory and local requirements and approvals. If we do not successfully execute on our cost reduction initiatives or if we experience delays in completing the implementation of these initiatives, our results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our reported results could be adversely affected by currency exchange rates and currency devaluation could impair our competitiveness.
Due to our international operations, we transact in many foreign currencies, including but not limited to the Euro, Brazilian real, Mexican peso and Japanese yen. As a result, we are subject to the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. During times of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported net revenues and operating income will be reduced because the local currency will be translated into fewer U.S. dollars. During periods of local economic crisis, local currencies may be devalued significantly against the U.S. dollar, potentially reducing our margin. For example, unfavorable movement in the Euro has negatively impacted our results of operations since the second half of 2014, and the further decline of the Euro could affect future periods. From time to time, Chemours enters into forward exchange contracts and other financial contracts in an attempt to mitigate the impact of currency rate fluctuations. Currently, Chemours does not hedge on a transactional basis. There can be no assurance that any hedging action will lessen the adverse impact of a variation in currency rates. Also, actions to recover margins may result in lower volume and a weaker competitive position, which may have an adverse effect on our profitability. For example, in Titanium Technologies, a substantial portion of our manufacturing is located in the U.S. and Mexico, while our TiO2 is delivered to customers around the world. Furthermore, our ore cost is principally denominated in U.S. dollars. Accordingly, in periods when the U.S. dollar or Mexican Peso strengthen against other local currencies such as the Euro, our costs are higher relative to our competitors who operate largely outside of the United States, and the benefits we realize from having lower costs associated with our manufacturing process are reduced, impacting our profitability.
The markets for many of our products have seasonally affected sales patterns.
The demand for TiO2, certain of our fluoroproducts and certain of our other products during a given year is subject to seasonal fluctuations. As a result of seasonal fluctuations, our operating cash flow may be negatively impacted due to demand fluctuations. In particular, because TiO2 is widely used in coatings, demand is higher in the painting seasons of spring and summer. Because certain fluoroproducts are used in refrigerants, such products are in higher demand in the spring and summer in the Northern Hemisphere. We may be adversely affected by anticipated or unanticipated changes in regional weather conditions. For example, poor weather conditions in a region can lead to an abbreviated painting season, which can depress consumer sales of paint products that use TiO2, which could have a negative effect on our cash position.
Our results of operations could be adversely affected by litigation and other commitments and contingencies.
We face risks arising from various unasserted and asserted litigation matters, including, but not limited to, product liability, patent infringement, antitrust claims, and claims for third party property damage or personal injury stemming from alleged environmental or other torts. We have noted a nationwide trend in purported class actions against chemical manufacturers generally seeking relief such as medical monitoring, property damages, off-site remediation and punitive damages arising from alleged environmental or other torts without claiming present personal injuries. We also have noted a trend in public and private nuisance suits being filed on behalf of states, counties, cities and utilities alleging harm to the general public. Various factors or developments can lead to changes in current estimates of liabilities such as a final adverse judgment, significant settlement or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling or unfavorable development could result in future charges that could have a material adverse effect on us. An adverse outcome in any one or more of these matters could be material to our financial results and could adversely impact the value of any of our brands that are associated with any such matters.

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In the ordinary course of business, we may make certain commitments, including representations, warranties and indemnities relating to current and past operations, including those related to divested businesses, and issue guarantees of third party obligations. Additionally, we are required to indemnify DuPont for uncapped amounts with regard to liabilities allocated to, or assumed by us under each of the separation agreement, the employee matters agreement, the tax matters agreement and the intellectual property cross-license agreement that were executed prior to the spin-off. These indemnification obligations to date have included defense costs associated with certain litigation matters as well as certain damages awards, settlements, and penalties. As we are required to make payments, such payments could be significant and could exceed the amounts we have accrued with respect thereto, adversely affecting our results of operations. In addition, in the event that DuPont seeks indemnification for adverse trial rulings or outcomes, these indemnification claims could materially adversely affect our financial condition. Disputes between Chemours and DuPont many also arise with respect to indemnification matters including disputes based on matters of law or contract interpretation. If and to the extent these disputes arise, they could materially adversely affect us.
As a result of our current and past operations, including operations related to divested businesses and our discontinued operations, we could incur significant environmental liabilities.
We are subject to various laws and regulations around the world governing the environment, including the discharge of pollutants and the management and disposal of hazardous substances. As a result of our operations, including the operations of divested businesses and certain discontinued operations, we could incur substantial costs, including remediation and restoration costs. The costs of complying with complex environmental laws and regulations, as well as internal voluntary programs, are significant and will continue to be significant for the foreseeable future. This includes costs we expect to continue to incur for environmental investigation and remediation activities at a number of our current or former sites and third-party disposal locations. However, the ultimate costs under environmental laws and the timing of these costs are difficult to accurately predict. While we establish accruals in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, the ultimate actual costs and liabilities may vary from the accruals because the estimates on which the accruals are based depend on a number of factors (many of which are outside of our control), including the nature of the matter and any associated third-party claims, the complexity of the site, site geology, the nature and extent of contamination, the type of remedy, the outcome of discussions with regulatory agencies and other Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) at multi-party sites and the number and financial viability of other PRPs. See "Environmental Matters" within Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for further information and Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
As we conduct a substantial percentage of our operations internationally, and may increase our presence in developing and other international markets, unforeseen or adverse changes in government policies, laws or certain geopolitical conditions and activities could adversely affect our financial results.
We have 35 production facilities, with operations primarily located in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil, the Netherlands, Belgium, China, Japan, Taiwan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and France. Sales to customers outside the U.S. constituted about 57% of our 2015 revenue. We anticipate that international production and sales, including those activities in developing markets, will be a continued and increasingly important part of our business. For example, we use local contract manufacturing and joint venture partners in Asia and Latin America, more specifically China, Vietnam and Mexico, as sources of regional access, asset-light production (where possible) and sourcing partners that decrease the cost of materials and production for our Fluoroproducts segment. However, our ability to achieve these improved cost positions is dependent on our ongoing relationships in the region, including our ability to source materials in those relevant countries and those relationships may be materially affected by geopolitical factors and government actions, such as the enactment of import/export restrictions or other trade limitations. To the extent our regional production or sourcing arrangements in Asia and Latin America are disrupted, that disruption could have an adverse effect on our costs and materially impact our financial results. Sales from developing markets represented 25% percent of our 2015 revenue and our growth plans include focusing on our presence in developing markets, specifically markets in Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. While we believe these developing markets offer prospects for business growth, we also anticipate that such markets could be subject to more volatile economic, political and market conditions than other market areas in which we operate and, should changes in trade, monetary and fiscal policies, laws and regulations, or other activities of U.S. and non-U.S. governments, agencies and similar organizations have a negative effect on our sales to non-U.S. markets, our financial results could be affected adversely. In this regard, factors that could affect our sales, include, but are not limited to, changes in a country’s or region’s economic or political conditions, trade or other economic-based regulations, environmental regulations, including climate change-based regulations or legislation and regulations relating to the transport or shipment of hazardous materials, and policies affecting production, pricing and marketing of products, local labor conditions and regulations, reduced protection of intellectual property rights in some countries, changes in the regulatory or legal environment, restrictions on currency exchange activities, burdensome taxes and tariffs and other trade barriers or policies. The certainty, timing and enforcement of these regulations is less predictable in developing countries, adding a further element of uncertainty to business decisions including those related to long-term capital investment. For example, demand growth in Chemours HFO based products and blends is expected to be driven by country-

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specific legislation phasing down the usage of comparative HFC based products, based on compliance with and implementation of the Montreal Protocol or similar environmental regulations governing the use of HCFCs, HFCs and HFOs. While a number of countries in Asia and Eastern Europe in which we sell or market our products have enacted legislation or otherwise adopted programs to phase-down the usage of HFC refrigerants, the enforcement of such legislation and impact of such programs is uncertain and any delays in such implementation and enforcement could have an adverse effect on our sales and financial results. In Titanium Technologies, we believe that some local producers in China may be required to incur additional capital expenditures to meet recently enacted environmental standards for pollution abatement, which could exert pressure on competing regional producers in China utilizing the sulfate process.
Failure to maintain effective internal controls could adversely affect our ability to meet our reporting requirements.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the "Sarbanes-Oxley Act") requires, among other things, that we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. One key aspect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is that we must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management and our independent registered public accounting firm to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, with auditor attestation of the effectiveness of our internal controls, beginning with our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2016. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our common shares could decline and we could be subject to penalties or investigations by the NYSE, the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports, and to effectively prevent fraud. Internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and effectively prevent fraud, our operating results could be harmed. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. If we fail to maintain the effectiveness of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations, and there could be a material adverse effect on our stock price.
The ongoing process of implementing internal controls in connection with our operation as a stand-alone company requires significant attention from management and we cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we implement and maintain adequate controls over our financial processes and reporting in the future. Difficulties encountered in their implementation could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we fail to obtain the quality of administrative services necessary to operate effectively or incur greater costs in obtaining these services, our profitability, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
Effects of our raw materials contracts, including our inability to renew such contracts, could have a significant impact on our earnings.
When possible we have purchased, and we plan to continue to purchase, raw materials, including titanium bearing ores and fluorospar, through negotiated medium- or long-term contracts to minimize the impact of price fluctuations. To the extent that we have been able to achieve favorable pricing in our existing negotiated long-term contracts, we may not be able to renew such contracts at the current prices, or at all, and this may adversely impact our cash flow from operations. However, to the extent that the prices of raw materials that we utilize significantly decline, we may be bound by the terms of our existing long-term contracts and obligated to purchase such raw materials at higher prices as compared to other market participants.
Price fluctuations in energy and raw materials could have a significant impact on our ability to sustain and grow earnings.
Our manufacturing processes consume significant amounts of energy and raw materials, the costs of which are subject to worldwide supply and demand as well as other factors beyond our control. Variations in the cost of energy, which primarily reflect market prices for oil and natural gas, and for raw materials may significantly affect our operating results from period to period. Additionally, consolidation in the industries providing our raw materials may have an impact on the cost and availability of such materials. To the extent we do not have fixed price contracts with respect to specific raw materials, we have no control over the costs of raw materials and such costs may fluctuate widely for a variety of reasons, including changes in availability, major capacity additions

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or reductions, or significant facility operating problems. These fluctuations could negatively affect our operating margins and our profitability.
We attempt to offset the effects of higher energy and raw material costs through selling price increases, productivity improvements and cost reduction programs. However, the outcome of these efforts is largely determined by existing competitive and economic conditions, and may be subject to a time delay between the increase in our raw materials costs and our ability to increase prices, which could vary significantly depending on the market served. If we are not able to fully offset the effects of higher energy or raw material costs, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
Hazards associated with chemical manufacturing, storage and transportation could adversely affect our results of operations.
There are hazards associated with chemical manufacturing and the related storage and transportation of raw materials, products and wastes. These hazards could lead to an interruption or suspension of operations and have an adverse effect on the productivity and profitability of a particular manufacturing facility or on us as a whole. While we endeavor to provide adequate protection for the safe handling of these materials, issues could be created by various events, including natural disasters, severe weather events, acts of sabotage and performance by third parties, and as a result we could face the following potential hazards:
piping and storage tank leaks and ruptures;
mechanical failure;
employee exposure to hazardous substances; and
chemical spills and other discharges or releases of toxic or hazardous substances or gases.
 
These hazards may cause personal injury and loss of life, damage to property and contamination of the environment, which could lead to government fines, work stoppage injunctions, lawsuits by injured persons, damage to our public reputation and brand, and diminished product acceptance. If such actions are determined adversely to us or there is an associated economic impact to our business, we may have inadequate insurance or cash flow to offset any associated costs. Such outcomes could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may result in unanticipated loss or liability, which could reduce our profitability.
Our operations and production facilities are subject to extensive environmental and health and safety laws and regulations at national, international and local levels in numerous jurisdictions relating to pollution, protection of the environment, climate change, transporting and storing raw materials and finished products and storing and disposing of hazardous wastes. Such laws include, in the U.S., the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, often referred to as Superfund), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and similar state and global laws for management and remediation of hazardous materials, the Clean Air Act (CAA) and the Clean Water Act, for protection of air and water resources, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and in the EU, the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), for regulation of chemicals in commerce and reporting of potential known adverse effects and numerous local, state and federal laws and regulations governing materials transport and packaging. If we are found to be in violation of these laws or regulations, we may incur substantial costs, including fines, damages, criminal or civil sanctions and remediation costs, or experience interruptions in our operations. We also may be subject to changes in our operations and production based on increased regulation or other changes to, or restrictions imposed by, any such additional regulations. In addition, the manner in which adopted regulations (including environmental regulations) are ultimately implemented may affect our products and results of operations. In the event of a catastrophic incident involving any of the raw materials we use or chemicals we produce, we could incur material costs as a result of addressing the consequences of such event and future reputational costs associated with any such event.
There is also a risk that one or more of our key raw materials or one or more of our products may be found to have, or be characterized as having, a toxicological or health-related impact on the environment or on our customers or employees or unregulated emissions, which could potentially result in us incurring liability in connection with such characterization and the associated effects of any toxicological or health-related impact. If such a discovery or characterization occurs, we may incur increased costs in order to comply with new regulatory requirements or the relevant materials or products, including products of our customers incorporating our materials or products, may be recalled or banned. Changes in laws and regulations, or their interpretation, and our customers’ perception of such changes or interpretations may also affect the marketability of certain of our products.

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The businesses in which we compete are highly competitive. This competition may adversely affect our results of operations and operating cash flows.
Each of the businesses in which we operate is highly competitive. Competition in the performance chemicals industry is based on a number of factors such as price, product quality and service. We face significant competition from major international and regional competitors. Additionally, our Titanium Technologies business competes with numerous regional producers, including producers in China, which have expanded their readily available production capacity during the previous five years. Additionally, the risk of substitution of Chinese producers by our customers could increase as they expand their use of chloride production technology.
Our results of operations and financial condition could be seriously impacted by business disruptions and security breaches, including cybersecurity incidents.
Business and/or supply chain disruptions, plant downtime and/or power outages and information technology system and/or network disruptions, regardless of cause including acts of sabotage, employee error or other actions, geo-political activity, weather events and natural disasters could seriously harm our operations as well as the operations of our customers and suppliers. Failure to effectively prevent, detect and recover from security breaches, including attacks on information technology and infrastructure by hackers, viruses, breaches due to employee error or actions or other disruptions could result in misuse of our assets, business disruptions, loss of property including trade secrets and confidential business information, legal claims or proceedings, reporting errors, processing inefficiencies, negative media attention, loss of sales and interference with regulatory compliance. Like most major corporations, we have been and expect to be the target of industrial espionage, including cyber-attacks, from time to time. We have determined that these attacks have resulted, and could result in the future, in unauthorized parties gaining access to certain confidential business information, and have included the obtaining of trade secrets and proprietary information related to the chloride manufacturing process for TiO2 by third parties. Although we do not believe that we have experienced any material losses to date related to these breaches, there can be no assurance that we will not suffer any such losses in the future. We plan to actively manage the risks within our control that could lead to business disruptions and security breaches. As these threats continue to evolve, particularly around cybersecurity, we may be required to expend significant resources to enhance our control environment, processes, practices and other protective measures. Despite these efforts, such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
If our intellectual property were compromised or copied by competitors, or if our competitors were to develop similar or superior intellectual property or technology, our results of operations could be negatively affected.
Intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, confidential information, trademarks, tradenames and trade dress are important to our business. We endeavor to protect our intellectual property rights in key jurisdictions in which our products are produced or used and in jurisdictions into which our products are imported. Our success depends to a significant degree upon our ability to protect and preserve our intellectual property rights. However, we may be unable to obtain protection for our intellectual property in key jurisdictions. Although we own and have applied for numerous patents and trademarks throughout the world, we may have to rely on judicial enforcement of our patents and other proprietary rights. Our patents and other intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, and rendered unenforceable or otherwise compromised. A failure to protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, third parties may assert claims against us and our customers and distributors alleging our products infringe upon third party intellectual property rights.
We also rely materially upon unpatented proprietary technology, know-how and other trade secrets to maintain our competitive position. While we maintain policies to enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees and third parties to protect our proprietary expertise and other trade secrets, these agreements may not be enforceable or, even if legally enforceable, we may not have adequate remedies for breaches of such agreements. We also may not be able to readily detect breaches of such agreements. The failure of our patents or confidentiality agreements to protect our proprietary technology, know-how or trade secrets could result in significantly lower revenues, reduced profit margins or loss of market share.
If we must take legal action to protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights, any suits or proceedings could result in significant costs and diversion of resources and management’s attention, and we may not prevail in any such suits or proceedings. A failure to protect, defend or enforce our intellectual property rights could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Restrictions under the intellectual property cross-license agreement could limit our ability to develop and commercialize certain products and/or prosecute, maintain and enforce certain intellectual property.
We depend to a certain extent on DuPont to prosecute, maintain and enforce certain of the intellectual property licensed under the intellectual property cross-license agreement. Specifically, DuPont is responsible for filing, prosecuting and maintaining patents that DuPont licenses to us. DuPont also has the first right to enforce such patents, trade secrets and the know-how licensed to us by DuPont. If DuPont fails to fulfill its obligations or chooses to not enforce the licensed patents, trade secrets or know-how under the intellectual property cross-license agreement, we may not be able to prevent competitors from making, using and selling competitive products (unless we are able to effectively exercise our secondary rights to enforce such patents, trade secrets and know-how).
In addition, our restrictions under the intellectual property cross-license agreement could limit our ability to develop and commercialize certain products. For example, the licenses granted to us under the agreement may not extend to all new products, services and businesses that we may enter in the future. These limitations and restrictions may make it more difficult, time consuming or expensive for us to develop and commercialize certain new products and services, or may result in certain of our products or services being later to market than those of our competitors.
If we are unable to innovate and successfully introduce new products, or new technologies or processes reduce the demand for our products or the price at which we can sell products, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Our industries and the end-use markets into which we sell our products experience periodic technological change and product improvement. Our future growth will depend on our ability to gauge the direction of commercial and technological progress in key end-use markets and on our ability to fund and successfully develop, manufacture and market products in such changing end-use markets. We must continue to identify, develop and market innovative products or enhance existing products on a timely basis to maintain our profit margins and our competitive position. We may be unable to develop new products or technology, either alone or with third parties, or license intellectual property rights from third parties on a commercially competitive basis. If we fail to keep pace with the evolving technological innovations in our end-use markets on a competitive basis, including with respect to innovation with regard to the development of alternative uses for, or application of, products developed that utilize such end-use products, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. We cannot predict whether technological innovations will, in the future, result in a lower demand for our products or affect the competitiveness of our business. We may be required to invest significant resources to adapt to changing technologies, markets, competitive environments and laws and regulations. We cannot anticipate market acceptance of new products or future products. In addition, we may not achieve our expected benefits associated with new products developed to meet new laws or regulations if the implementation of such laws or regulations is delayed.
Our customers, prospective customers, suppliers or other companies with whom we conduct business may need assurances that our financial stability is sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with them.
Some of our customers, prospective customers, suppliers or other companies with whom we conduct business may need assurances that our financial stability is sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with them, and may require us to provide additional credit support, such as letters of credit or other financial guarantees. Any failure of parties to be satisfied with our financial stability could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In connection with our separation, we were required to assume, and indemnify DuPont for, certain liabilities. As we are required to make payments pursuant to these indemnities to DuPont, we may need to divert cash to meet those obligations and our financial results could be negatively affected. In addition, DuPont's obligation to indemnify us for certain liabilities may not be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of liabilities for which it will be allocated responsibility, and DuPont may not be able to satisfy its indemnification obligations in the future.
Pursuant to the separation agreement, the employee matters agreement, the tax matters agreement and the intellectual property cross-license agreement we entered into with DuPont prior to the spin-off, we were required to assume, and indemnify DuPont for, certain liabilities for uncapped amounts. These indemnification obligations to date have included, among other items, defense costs associated with certain litigation matters as well as certain damages awards, settlement amounts and penalties. Payments pursuant to these indemnities may be significant and could negatively impact our business, particularly indemnities relating to our actions that could impact the tax-free nature of the distribution. In addition, in the event that DuPont seeks indemnification for adverse trial rulings or outcomes, these indemnification claims could materially adversely affect our financial condition. Disputes between Chemours and Dupont may also arise with respect to indemnification matters, including disputes based on matter of law or contract interpretation. If and to the extent these disputes arise, they could materially adversely affect us.

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Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities of the DuPont businesses. DuPont has agreed to indemnify us for such liabilities, but such indemnity from DuPont may not be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, and DuPont may not be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from DuPont any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
In connection with our separation, we were required to enter into numerous separation-related and commercial agreements with our former parent company, DuPont, which may not reflect optimal or commercially beneficial terms to Chemours.
Commercial agreements we entered into with DuPont in connection with the separation were negotiated in the context of the separation while we were still a wholly-owned subsidiary of DuPont. Accordingly, during the period in which the terms of those agreements were negotiated, we did not have an independent board of directors or management independent of DuPont. Certain commercial agreements, having long terms and commercially advantageous cancellation and assignment rights to DuPont, may not include adjustments for changes in industry and market conditions. There is a risk that the pricing and other terms under these agreements may not be commercially beneficial and may not be able to be renegotiated in the future. The terms relate to, among other things, the allocation of assets, liabilities, rights and obligations, including the provision of products and services and the sharing and operation of property, manufacturing, office and laboratory sites, and other commercial rights and obligations between DuPont and us.
Our ability to close or divest businesses and assets under our announced transformation plan and make future strategic decisions regarding our manufacturing operations may be adversely affected to the extent we are dependent upon consents or cooperation from DuPont under the agreements entered into between us and DuPont as part of the separation.
Pursuant to the separation agreement, the employee matters agreement, the tax matters agreement and the intellectual property cross-license agreement, and related agreements entered into prior to separation, we may need to obtain DuPont’s consent, cooperation, services, records or information in order to effect the strategic divestitures contemplated under our announced transformation plan. Our inability to receive, or delays in receiving, such consents, cooperation, services, records or information may adversely affect our ability to execute upon our transformation plan or reduce our strategic or operational flexibility.
In addition, we periodically assess our manufacturing operations in order to manufacture and distribute our products in the most efficient manner. Based on our assessments, we may make strategic decisions regarding our manufacturing operations such as capital improvements to modernize certain units, move manufacturing or distribution capabilities from one plant or facility to another plant or facility, discontinue manufacturing or distributing certain products or close or divest all or part of a manufacturing plant or facility, some of which have significant shared services and lease agreements with DuPont. These agreements may adversely impact our ability to take these strategic decisions regarding out manufacturing operations. Further, if such agreements are terminated or revised, we would have to assess and potentially adjust our manufacturing operations, the closure or divestiture of all or part of a manufacturing plant or facility that could result in future charges that could be significant.
Expansion or improvement of our existing facilities may not result in revenue and profitability increases and will be subject to regulatory, environmental, political, legal and economic risks, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
One of the ways we may improve our business is through the expansion or improvement of our existing facilities, such as the current work being done to expand our Altamira TiO2 facility and the planned expansion of our Cyanides facility. Construction of additions or modifications to facilities involves numerous regulatory, environmental, political, legal and economic uncertainties that are beyond our control. Such expansion or improvement projects may also require the expenditure of significant amounts of capital, and financing may not be available on economically acceptable terms or at all. As a result, these projects may not be completed on schedule, at the budgeted cost, or at all. Moreover, our revenue may not increase immediately upon the expenditure of funds on a particular project. As a result, we may not be able to realize our expected investment return, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are a holding company that is dependent on cash flows from our operating subsidiaries to fund our debt obligations, capital expenditures and ongoing operations.
All of our operations are conducted and all of our assets are owned by our operating companies, which are our subsidiaries. We intend to continue to conduct our operations at the operating companies and any future subsidiaries. Consequently, our cash flow and our ability to meet our obligations or make cash distributions depends upon the cash flow of our operating companies and any future subsidiaries, and the payment of funds by our operating companies and any future subsidiaries in the form of dividends or

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otherwise. The ability of our operating companies and any future subsidiaries to make any payments to us depends on their earnings, the terms of their indebtedness, including the terms of any credit facilities, and legal restrictions regarding the transfer of funds.
Our debt is generally the exclusive obligation of The Chemours Company and our guarantor subsidiaries. Because a significant portion of our operations are conducted by nonguarantor subsidiaries, our cash flow and our ability to service indebtedness, including our ability to pay the interest on our debt when due and principal of such debt at maturity, are dependent to a large extent upon cash dividends and distributions or other transfers from such nonguarantor subsidiaries. Any payment of dividends, distributions, loans or advances by our nonguarantor subsidiaries to us could be subject to restrictions on dividends or repatriation of earnings under applicable local law, monetary transfer restrictions and foreign currency exchange regulations in the jurisdictions in which our subsidiaries operate, and any restrictions imposed by the current and future debt instruments of our nonguarantor subsidiaries. In addition, payments to us by our subsidiaries are contingent upon our subsidiaries' earnings.
Our subsidiaries are separate legal entities and, except for our guarantor subsidiaries, have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to pay any amounts due on our debt or to make any funds available for those amounts, whether by dividends, loans, distributions or other payments, and do not guarantee the payment of interest on, or principal of, our debt. Any right that we have to receive any assets of any of our subsidiaries that are not guarantors upon the liquidation or reorganization of any such subsidiary, and the consequent right of holders of notes to realize proceeds from the sale of their assets, will be structurally subordinated to the claims of that subsidiary's creditors, including trade creditors and holders of debt issued by that subsidiary.
If our intangible assets or other long-lived assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.
We have a significant amount of intangible assets and other long-lived assets on our consolidated balance sheet. Under U.S. GAAP, we review our intangible assets and other long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of our intangible assets and other long-lived assets may not be recoverable, include, but are not limited to, a significant decline in share price and market capitalization, changes in the industries in which we operate, particularly the impact of a downturn in the global economy, as well as competition or other factors leading to reduction in expected long-term sales or profitability. We may be required to record a significant noncash charge in our financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our intangible assets and other long-lived assets is determined, negatively impacting our results of operations.
Differences in views with our joint venture participants may cause our joint ventures not to operate according to their business plans, which may adversely affect our results of operations.
We currently participate in a number of joint ventures and may enter into additional joint ventures in the future. The nature of a joint venture requires us to share control with unaffiliated third parties. Differences in views among joint venture participants may result in delayed decisions or failure to agree on major decisions. If these differences cause the joint ventures to deviate from their business plans or to fail to achieve their desired operating performance, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our failure to comply with the anti-corruption laws of the United States and various international jurisdictions could negatively impact our reputation and results of operations.
Doing business on a global basis requires us to comply with the laws and regulations of the U.S. government and those of various international and sub-national jurisdictions, and our failure to successfully comply with these rules and regulations may expose us to liabilities. These laws and regulations apply to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents, and may restrict our operations, trade practices, investment decisions and partnering activities. In particular, our international operations are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010 (the "Bribery Act") as well as anti-corruption laws of the various jurisdictions in which we operate. The FCPA, the Bribery Act and other laws prohibit us and our officers, directors, employees and agents acting on our behalf from corruptly offering, promising, authorizing or providing anything of value to foreign officials for the purposes of influencing official decisions or obtaining or retaining business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment. Our global operations may expose us to the risk of violating, or being accused of violating, the foregoing or other anti-corruption laws. Such violations could be punishable by criminal fines, imprisonment, civil penalties, disgorgement of profits, injunctions and exclusion from government contracts, as well as other remedial measures. Investigations of alleged violations can be very expensive, disruptive, and damaging to our reputation. Although we have implemented anti-corruption policies and procedures since the separation, there can be no guarantee that these policies, procedures, and training will effectively prevent violations by our employees or representatives in the future. Additionally, we face a risk that our distributors and other business partners may violate the FCPA, the Bribery Act or similar laws or regulations. Such violations could expose us to FCPA and Bribery Act liability and/or our reputation may potentially be harmed by their violations and resulting sanctions and fines.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our significant indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition, and we could have difficulty fulfilling our obligations under our indebtedness, which may have a material adverse effect on us.
As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately $4.0 billion of indebtedness. At December 31, 2015, together with the guarantors, we had approximately $1.5 billion of senior secured indebtedness outstanding, and had an additional $1.0 billion of capacity under the Revolving Credit Facility, all of which was senior secured indebtedness. In February 2016, we entered into an amendment to our Revolving Credit Facility which reduced its capacity to $750 million. Our significant level of indebtedness increases the risk that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay amounts due in respect of our indebtedness. The level of our indebtedness could have other important consequences on our business, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to indebtedness;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and competitive conditions;
requiring us to dedicate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to make payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital and other general corporate purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
restricting us from capitalizing on business opportunities;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt;
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy or other general corporate purposes;
limiting our ability to enter into certain commercial arrangements because of concerns of counterparty risks; and
limiting our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt.
The occurrence of any one or more of these circumstances could have a material adverse effect on us.
Despite our significant level of indebtedness, we may be able to incur substantially more debt and enter into other transactions which could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above.
Notwithstanding our significant level of indebtedness, we may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness in the future, including additional secured indebtedness that would be effectively senior to the notes (including up to $750 million of available capacity under the Revolving Credit Facility pursuant to the February 2016 amendment). Although the indenture that governs the notes and the credit agreement that governs the Senior Secured Credit Facilities contain restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness and to enter into certain types of other transactions, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions. Additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions, including secured indebtedness, could be substantial. These restrictions also do not prevent us from incurring obligations, such as trade payables, that do not constitute indebtedness as defined under our debt instruments. To the extent such new debt is added to our current debt levels, the substantial leverage risks described in the immediately preceding risk factor would increase.
We may need additional capital in the future and may not be able to obtain it on favorable terms.
Our industry is capital intensive, and we may require additional capital in the future to finance our growth and development, implement further marketing and sales activities, fund ongoing research and development activities and meet general working capital needs. Our capital requirements will depend on many factors, including acceptance of and demand for our products, the extent to which we invest in new technology and research and development projects, and the status and timing of these developments, as well as general availability of capital from debt and/or equity markets.
However, debt or equity financing may not be available to us on terms we find acceptable, if at all. Also, regardless of the terms of our debt or equity financing, our agreements and obligations under the tax matters agreement may limit our ability to issue stock. For a more detailed discussion, see risk factor “We agreed to numerous restrictions to preserve the tax-free treatment of the transactions in the United States, which may reduce our strategic and operating flexibility.” If we are unable to raise additional capital when needed, our financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

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Additionally, our failure to maintain the credit ratings on our debt securities, including the notes, could negatively affect our ability to access capital and could increase our interest expense on future indebtedness. We expect the credit rating agencies to periodically review our capital structure and the quality and stability of our earnings. Deterioration in our capital structure or the quality and stability of our earnings could result in a downgrade of the credit ratings on our debt securities. Any negative rating agency actions could constrain the capital available to us, reduce or eliminate available borrowing to us and could limit our access to and/or increase the cost of funding our operations. If, as a result, our ability to access capital when needed becomes constrained, our interest costs could increase, which could have material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our indebtedness service obligations to increase significantly.
Our borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities are at variable rates and expose us to interest rate risk. As a result, if interest rates increase, our debt service obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or other variable rate debt would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, would correspondingly decrease. As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately $1.5 billion of our outstanding debt at variable interest rates.
We may be unable to service our indebtedness, including the notes.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the notes, depends on and is subject to our financial and operating performance, which in turn is affected by general and regional economic, financial, competitive, business and other factors (many of which are beyond our control), including the availability of financing in the international banking and capital markets. We cannot be certain that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to service our debt, including the notes, to refinance our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs.
If we are unable to meet our debt service obligations or to fund our other liquidity needs, we will need to restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt, including the notes. Failure to successfully restructure or refinance our debt could cause us to default on our debt obligations and would impair our liquidity. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our indebtedness could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants that could further restrict our business operations.
Moreover, in the event of a default of our debt service obligations, the holders of the applicable indebtedness, including the notes and the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, could elect to declare all the funds borrowed to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. We cannot be certain that our assets or cash flows would be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under our outstanding debt instruments if accelerated upon an event of default. First, a default in our debt service obligations in respect of the notes would result in a cross default under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities. The foregoing would permit the lenders under the Revolving Credit Facility to terminate their commitments thereunder and cease making further loans, and would allow the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities to declare all loans immediately due and payable and to institute foreclosure proceedings against their collateral, which could force us into bankruptcy or liquidation. Second, any event of default or declaration of acceleration under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or any other agreements relating to our outstanding indebtedness under which the total amount of outstanding indebtedness exceeds $100 million could also result in an event of default under the indenture governing the notes, and any event of default or declaration of acceleration under any other of our outstanding indebtedness may also contain a cross-default provision. Any such default, event of default or declaration of acceleration could materially and adversely affect our results of operation and financial condition.
The agreements governing our indebtedness restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.
The agreements governing our indebtedness, including the notes, contain, and the agreements governing future indebtedness and future debt securities may contain, significant restrictive covenants and, in the case of the Revolving Credit Facility, financial maintenance covenants that will limit our operations, including our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. These restrictive covenants may limit us, and our restricted subsidiaries, from taking, or give rights to the holders of our indebtedness in the event of the following actions:
incurring additional indebtedness and guaranteeing indebtedness;
paying dividends or making other distributions in respect of, or repurchasing or redeeming, our capital stock;

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making acquisitions or other investments;
prepaying, redeeming or repurchasing certain indebtedness;
selling or otherwise disposing of assets;
selling stock of our subsidiaries;
incurring liens;
entering into transactions with affiliates;
entering into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends;
entering into transactions that result in a change of control of us; and
consolidating, merging or selling all or substantially all of our assets.
Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of some or all of our indebtedness, which could lead us to bankruptcy, reorganization or insolvency.
Risks Related to the Separation
We may be unable to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expected to achieve from our separation from DuPont.
As an independent, publicly-traded company, we continue to, among other things, focus our financial and operational resources on our specific business, growth profile and strategic priorities, design and implement corporate strategies and policies targeted to our operational focus and strategic priorities, guide our processes and infrastructure to focus on our core strengths, implement and maintain a capital structure designed to meet our specific needs and more effectively respond to industry dynamics, all of which are benefits we expected to achieve from our separation. However, we may be unable to fully achieve some or all of these benefits. For example, in order to position ourselves for the separation and distribution, we undertook a series of strategic, structural and process realignment and restructuring actions within our operations. These actions may not provide the benefits we expected, and could lead to disruption of our operations, loss of, or inability to recruit, key personnel needed to operate and grow our businesses following the separation and distribution, weakening of our internal standards, controls or procedures and impairment of our key customer and supplier relationships. If we fail to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expected to achieve as an independent company, or do not achieve them in the time we expected, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
If the distribution, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify for non-recognition treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then we could be subject to significant tax and indemnification liability and stockholders receiving our common stock in the distribution could be subject to significant tax liability.
DuPont received an IRS Ruling from the IRS substantially to the effect that, among other things, the distribution qualified as a tax-free transaction under Section 355 and Section 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code (the Code).  The tax-free nature of the distribution was conditioned on the continued validity of the IRS Ruling, as well as on receipt of a tax opinion, in form and substance acceptable to DuPont, substantially to the effect that, among other things, the distribution would qualify as a tax-free transaction under Section 355 and Section 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, and certain transactions related to the transfer of assets and liabilities to us in connection with the separation and distribution would not result in the recognition of any gain or loss to DuPont, us or our stockholders. The IRS Ruling and the tax opinion relied on certain facts, assumptions, and undertakings, and certain representations from DuPont and us, regarding the past and future conduct of both respective businesses and other matters, and the tax opinion relies on the IRS Ruling.  Notwithstanding the IRS Ruling and the tax opinion, the IRS could determine that the distribution or such related transactions should be treated as a taxable transaction if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations, or undertakings were not correct, or that the distribution should be taxable for other reasons, including if the IRS were to disagree with the conclusions in the tax opinion that are not covered by the IRS Ruling.
If the distribution ultimately was determined to be taxable, then a stockholder of DuPont that received shares of our common stock in the distribution would be treated as having received a distribution of property in an amount equal to the fair market value of such shares on the distribution date and could incur significant income tax liabilities. Such distribution would be taxable to such stockholder as a dividend to the extent of DuPont’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Any amount that exceeded DuPont’s earnings and profits would be treated first as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of such stockholder’s tax basis in its shares of DuPont stock with any remaining amount being taxed as a capital gain. DuPont would recognize a taxable gain in

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an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the shares of our common stock held by DuPont on the distribution date over DuPont’s tax basis in such shares. In addition, if certain related transactions fail to qualify for tax-free treatment under U.S. federal, state and/or local tax law and/or foreign tax law, we and DuPont could incur significant tax liabilities under U.S. federal, state, local and/or foreign tax law.
Generally, taxes resulting from the failure of the separation and distribution or certain related transactions to qualify for non-recognition treatment under U.S. federal, state and/or local tax law and/or foreign tax law would be imposed on DuPont or DuPont’s stockholders and, under the tax matters agreement that we entered into with DuPont prior to the spin-off, DuPont is generally obligated to indemnify us against such taxes to the extent that we may be jointly, severally or secondarily liable for such taxes. However, under the terms of the tax matters agreement, we are also generally responsible for any taxes imposed on DuPont that arise from the failure of the distribution to qualify as tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes within the meaning of Section 355 of the Code or the failure of such related transactions to qualify for tax-free treatment, to the extent such failure to qualify is attributable to actions, events or transactions relating to our, or our affiliates’, stock, assets or business, or any breach of our or our affiliates’ representations, covenants or obligations under the tax matters agreement (or any other agreement we enter into in connection with the separation and distribution), the materials submitted to the IRS or other governmental authorities in connection with the request for the IRS Ruling or other tax rulings or the representation letter provided to counsel in connection with the tax opinion. Events triggering an indemnification obligation under the agreement include events occurring after the distribution that cause DuPont to recognize a gain under Section 355(e) of the Code. Such tax amounts could be significant. To the extent we are responsible for any liability under the tax matters agreement, there could be a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows in future reporting periods.
We are subject to continuing contingent tax-related liabilities of DuPont.
There are several significant areas where the liabilities of DuPont may become our obligations. For example, under the Code and the related rules and regulations, each corporation that was a member of DuPont’s consolidated tax reporting group during any taxable period or portion of any taxable period ending on or before the effective time of the distribution is jointly and severally liable for the U.S. federal income tax liability of the entire consolidated tax reporting group for such taxable period. In connection with the separation and distribution, we entered into a tax matters agreement with DuPont that allocates the responsibility for prior period taxes of DuPont’s consolidated tax reporting group between us and DuPont. If DuPont were unable to pay any prior period taxes for which it is responsible, however, we could be required to pay the entire amount of such taxes, and such amounts could be significant. Other provisions of federal, state, local, or foreign law may establish similar liability for other matters, including laws governing tax-qualified pension plans, as well as other contingent liabilities.
We agreed to numerous restrictions to preserve the tax-free treatment of the transactions in the U.S., which may reduce our strategic and operating flexibility.
Our ability to engage in significant equity transactions could be limited or restricted in order to preserve, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the tax-free nature of the distribution by DuPont. Even if the distribution otherwise qualifies for tax-free treatment under Section 355 of the Code, the distribution may result in corporate-level taxable gain to DuPont under Sections 355(e) and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code if 50 percent or more, by vote or value, of shares of our stock or DuPont’s stock are acquired or issued as part of a plan or series of related transactions that includes the distribution. The process for determining whether an acquisition or issuance triggering these provisions has occurred is complex, inherently factual and subject to interpretation of the facts and circumstances of a particular case. Any acquisitions or issuances of our stock or DuPont’s stock within a two-year period after the distribution generally are presumed to be part of such a plan, although we or DuPont, as applicable, may be able to rebut that presumption. Accordingly, under the tax matters agreement entered into prior to the spin-off, for the two-year period following the distribution, we are prohibited, except in certain circumstances, from:
entering into any transaction resulting in the acquisition of 40 percent or more of our stock or substantially all of our assets, whether by merger or otherwise;
merging, consolidating or liquidating;
issuing equity securities beyond certain thresholds;
repurchasing our capital stock; or
ceasing to actively conduct our business.

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These restrictions may limit our ability to pursue certain strategic transactions or other transactions, including our transformation plans, that we may believe to otherwise be in our best interests or that might increase the value of our business. In addition, under the tax matters agreement, we are required to indemnify DuPont against any such tax liabilities as a result of the acquisition of our stock or assets, even if we do not participate in or otherwise facilitate the acquisition.
We may be unable to make, on a timely or cost-effective basis, the changes necessary to operate efficiently as an independent company.
We historically operated as part of DuPont’s corporate organization, and DuPont assisted us by providing various corporate functions. Following the separation and distribution, DuPont has no obligation to provide us with assistance other than certain transition services. These services do not include every service we received from DuPont in the past, and DuPont is only obligated to provide these services for limited periods from the distribution date. Accordingly, following the separation and distribution, we need to provide internally or obtain from unaffiliated third parties the services we received from DuPont. These services include information technology, research and development, finance, legal, insurance, compliance and human resources activities, the effective and appropriate performance of which is critical to our operations. We may be unable to replace these services in a timely manner or on terms and conditions as favorable as those we received from DuPont. In particular, DuPont’s information technology networks and systems are complex, and duplicating these networks and systems will be challenging. Because our business previously operated as part of the wider DuPont organization, we may be unable to successfully establish the infrastructure or implement the changes necessary to operate independently, or we may incur additional costs that could adversely affect our business.
There is a risk that, since separating from DuPont, we are more susceptible to market fluctuations and other adverse events than we would have been if we were still a part of DuPont’s organizational structure. As part of DuPont, we were able to enjoy certain benefits from DuPont’s operating diversity, purchasing power and opportunities to pursue integrated strategies with DuPont’s other businesses. As an independent, publicly traded company, we do not have similar diversity or integration opportunities and do not have similar purchasing power or access to capital markets. Additionally, as part of DuPont, we were able to leverage the DuPont historical market reputation and performance and brand identity to recruit and retain key personnel to run our business. As an independent, publicly traded company, we do not have the same historical market reputation and performance or brand identity as DuPont and it may be more difficult for us to recruit or retain such key personnel.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our stock price could become more volatile and investments could lose value.
The market price of our common stock and the number of shares traded each day has experienced significant fluctuations since our separation from DuPont and may continue to fluctuate significantly. The market price for our common stock may be affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates or our earnings guidance;
anticipated outcomes or resolutions of legal or other contingencies;
the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;
credit rating agency actions;
a change in our dividend or stock repurchase activities;
changes in rules or regulations applicable to our business;
the announcement of new products by us or our competitors;
overall market fluctuations and domestic and worldwide economic conditions; and
other factors described in these “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

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A significant drop in our stock price, such as that experienced in the period from July 1, 2015 to the date of this filing, could expose us to costly and time-consuming litigation, which could result in substantial costs and divert management's attention and resources, resulting in an adverse effect on our business.
We cannot guarantee the timing, amount, or payment of dividends on our common stock in the future.
The declaration, payment and amount of any dividend are subject to the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and, in the context of our financial policy, will depend upon many factors, including our financial condition and prospects, our capital requirements and access to capital markets, covenants associated with certain of our debt obligations, legal requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant, and there can be no assurances that we will continue to pay a dividend in the future.
A stockholder's percentage of ownership in us may be diluted in the future.
A stockholder's percentage ownership in us may be diluted because of equity issuances for acquisitions, capital market transactions or otherwise, including, without limitation, equity awards that we may be granting to our directors, officers and employees. Such issuances may have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
In addition, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designation, powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, including preferences over our common stock with respect to dividends and distributions, as our board of directors generally may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could dilute the voting power or reduce the value of our common stock. For example, we could grant the holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we could assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of our common stock.
Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws, and of Delaware law, may prevent or delay an acquisition of us, which could decrease the trading price of the common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include, among others:
the inability of our stockholders to act by written consent;
the limited ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting;
rules regarding how stockholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at stockholder meetings;
the right of our board of directors to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval;
the division of our board of directors into three approximately equal classes of directors, with each class serving a staggered three-year term, which will result in, under Delaware law, stockholders only being permitted to remove directors for cause;
the ability of our directors, and not stockholders, to fill vacancies (including those resulting from an enlargement of the board of directors) on our board of directors; and
the requirement that stockholders holding at least 80 percent of our voting stock are required to amend certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated by-laws.  
In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporations Law (the DGCL). Section 203 provides that, subject to limited exceptions, persons that (without prior board approval) acquire, or are affiliated with a person that acquires, more than 15 percent of the outstanding voting stock of a Delaware corporation shall not engage in any business combination with that corporation, including by merger, consolidation or acquisitions of additional shares, for a three-year period following the date on which that person or its affiliate becomes the holder of more than 15 percent of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock.
We believe these provisions will protect our stockholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors and by providing our board of directors with more time to assess any

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acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if an acquisition proposal or offer may be considered beneficial by some stockholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our board of directors determines is not in our best interests and our stockholders’. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
Several of the agreements that we have entered into with DuPont require DuPont’s consent to any assignment by us of our rights and obligations, or a change of control of us, under the agreements. The consent rights set forth in these agreements might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control that a stockholder may consider favorable.
In addition, an acquisition or further issuance of our stock could trigger the application of Section 355(e) of the Code. Under the tax matters agreement executed prior to the spin-off, we would be required to indemnify DuPont for the tax imposed under Section 355(e) of the Code resulting from an acquisition or issuance of its stock, even if it did not participate in or otherwise facilitate the acquisition, and this indemnity obligation might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control that a stockholder may consider favorable. Please see the risk factor "If the distribution, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify for non-recognition treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then we could be subject to significant tax and indemnification liability and stockholders receiving our common stock in the distribution could be subject to significant tax liability." for further information.
Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

Item 2. PROPERTIES
Chemours Production Facilities and Technical Centers
Our corporate headquarters is in Wilmington, Delaware, and we maintain a global network of production facilities and technical centers located in cost-effective and strategic locations. We also use contract manufacturing and joint venture partners in order to provide regional access or to lower manufacturing costs as appropriate. The following chart lists our production facilities as of December 31, 2015:
Production Facilities
 
 
Titanium Technologies
 
Fluoroproducts
 
Chemical Solutions
  
Shared Locations
North America
 
DeLisle, MS
New Johnsonville, TN
Starke, FL (Mine)
 
El Dorado, AR 1
Elkton, MD 1
Louisville, KY
Fayetteville, NC
Deepwater, NJ
Corpus Christi, TX
LaPorte, TX 2
Washington, WV
Maitland, Canada
 
Red Lion, DE 1
Wurtland, KY
Burnside, LA
Pascagoula, MS
Morses Mill, NJ 1
Niagara, NY 4
Fort Hill, OH
N. Kingstown, RI 1
Memphis, TN
Beaumont, TX 5
Borderland, TX 1
James River, VA
  
Belle, WV 3
Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA)
 
 
 
Mechelen, Belgium
Villers St. Paul, France 1
Dordrecht, Netherlands
 
Sudbury, UK
  
 
Latin America
 
Altamira, Mexico
 
Barra Mansa, Brazil 2
 
 
  
 
Asia Pacific
 
Kuan Yin, Taiwan
 
Changshu, China
Chiba, Japan
(Joint Venture)
Shimizu, Japan
(Joint Venture)
 
 
  
 
 

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1 Leased from third party.
2 Leased from DuPont.
3 Shared facility between the Chemical Solutions and Fluoroproducts segments.
4 During the fourth quarter of 2015, the Company announced its plan to stop production at this facility by the end of 2016. See the Recent Developments section in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information regarding our plans for this facility.
5 At December 31, 2015, this location was classified as held-for-sale.
We have technical centers and R&D facilities located at a number of our production facilities. We also maintain standalone technical centers to serve our customers and provide technical support. The following chart lists our standalone technical centers as of December 31, 2015:
Technical Centers
Region
 
Titanium Technologies
  
Fluoroproducts
  
Chemical Solutions
  
Shared Locations
North America
 
 
  
Akron, OH 2
  
 
  
Wilmington, DE (All Segments) 2, 3
EMEA
 
Moscow, Russia 1
  
Mechelen, Belgium 1
Mantes, France 1
Meyrin, Switzerland 2
  
 
  
 
Latin America
 
Paulinia, Brazil 2
Mexico City, Mexico 1
  
 
  
 
  
 
Asia Pacific
 
 
  
Utsonomyia, Japan 2
  
 
  
Shanghai, China 2
 (All Segments)
 
1 Leased from third party.
2 Leased from DuPont.
3 There are two facilities at this location.
Chemours’ plants and equipment are maintained and in good operating condition. Chemours believes it has sufficient production capacity for its primary products to meet demand in 2016. Properties are primarily owned by Chemours; however, certain properties are leased, as noted in the preceding tables.
Chemours recognizes that the security and safety of its operations are critical to its employees, community, and to the future of Chemours. Physical security measures have been combined with process safety measures (including the use of inherently safer technology), administrative procedures and emergency response preparedness into an integrated security plan. Prior to the separation, DuPont conducted vulnerability assessments at operating facilities in the U.S. and high priority sites worldwide and identified and implemented appropriate measures to protect these facilities from physical and cyber-attacks. Chemours intends to conduct similar vulnerability assessments periodically in the future. Chemours is partnering with carriers, including railroad, shipping and trucking companies, to secure chemicals in transit.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Legal Proceedings
The Company is subject to various litigation matters, including, but not limited to, product liability, patent infringement, antitrust claims and claims for third party property damage or personal injury stemming from alleged environmental torts. Information regarding certain of these matters is set forth below and in Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Litigation
PFOA: Environmental and Litigation Proceedings
For purposes of this report, the term PFOA means collectively perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts, including the ammonium salt and does not distinguish between the two forms. Information related to this matter is included in Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading PFOA.
Environmental Proceedings
LaPorte Plant, LaPorte, Texas
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a multimedia inspection at the DuPont LaPorte facility in January 2008. DuPont, the EPA and the Department of Justice (DOJ) began discussions in the fall of 2011 relating to the management of certain materials in the facility's waste water treatment system, hazardous waste management, flare and air emissions. These negotiations continue.
Beaumont Plant, Nederland, Texas
On September 10, 2015, the Company agreed to a proposed order from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to resolve an alleged violation of its air quality permits at the Beaumont facility. The TCEQ commissioners approved the agreed order on enforcement that included an administrative penalty in the amount of approximately $128,000. 
Wurtland Plant, Wurtland, Kentucky
DuPont signed a Consent Decree in 2007 in which it agreed to retrofit its four sulfuric acid plants, including the Wurtland Plant. After the retrofitting was complete, the Wurtland plant conducted a test burn in 2012 as required by the Decree. The EPA concluded the test burn did not demonstrate compliance and required a second trial burn in 2013, which the EPA found satisfactory. The DOJ is seeking stipulated penalties on the grounds that compliance was not demonstrated in 2012, and the plant failed to provide timely notice of the 2012 test, as required by the Decree. Negotiations with the DOJ are ongoing.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Information regarding mine safety and other regulatory actions at the Company's surface mine in Starke, Florida is included in Exhibit 95 to this report.

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT
The following is a list of the executive officers and a summary of their professional experience:
Mark P. Vergnano, age 58, serves as our President and Chief Executive Officer. In October 2009, Mr. Vergnano was appointed Executive Vice President of DuPont and was responsible for multiple businesses and functions, including the businesses in the Chemours segment: DuPont Chemicals & Fluoroproducts and Titanium Technologies.  In June 2006, he was named Group Vice President of DuPont Safety & Protection. In October 2005, he was named Vice President and General Manager - Surfaces and Building Innovations.  In February 2003, he was named Vice President and General Manager -Nonwovens. Prior to that, he had several assignments in manufacturing, technology, marketing, sales and business strategy.  Mr. Vergnano joined DuPont in 1980 as a process engineer. Mr. Vergnano serves on the board of directors of Johnson Controls, Inc., since 2011; the National Safety Council, since 2007; and the American Chemistry Council, since 2015. 

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Mark E. Newman, age 52, serves as our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Newman joined Chemours in November 2014 from SunCoke Energy where he was SunCoke Energy’s Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer and led its financial, strategy, business development and information technology functions. Mr. Newman joined SunCoke’s leadership team in March 2011 to help drive SunCoke’s separation from its parent company, Sunoco, Inc. He led SunCoke through an initial public offering and championed a major restructuring of SunCoke, which resulted in the initial public offering of SunCoke Energy Partners in January 2013, creating the first coke-manufacturing master limited partnership. Prior to joining SunCoke, Mr. Newman served as Vice President Remarketing & Managing Director of SmartAuction, Ally Financial Inc (previously General Motors Acceptance Corporation). Mr. Newman began his career at General Motors in 1986 as an Industrial Engineer and progressed through several financial and operational leadership roles within the global automaker, including Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Shanghai General Motors Limited; Assistant Treasurer of General Motors Corporation; and North America Vice President and CFO.
E. Bryan Snell, age 59, serves as our President - Titanium Technologies. Mr. Snell was appointed President - Titanium Technologies in May 2015. Previously, he served as Planning Director - DuPont Performance Chemicals (2014-2015). Prior to that, he held leadership positions in DuPont Titanium Technologies, including Planning Director (2011-12 in Wilmington, DE and 2012-13 in Singapore) and Global Sales and Marketing Director (2008-2010). Mr. Snell served as Regional Operations Director - DuPont Coatings and Color Technologies Platform in 2007 and 2008. He was posted in Taiwan from 2002 to 2006, in the roles of Plant Manager -Kuan Yin Plant and Asia/Pacific Regional Director, DuPont Titanium Technologies. Mr. Snell joined DuPont in 1978 as a process engineer and has experience in nuclear and petrochemical operations, as well as sales, business strategy and M&A.
Thierry F.J. Vanlancker, age 51, serves as our President - Fluoroproducts. Mr. Vanlancker was named president - DuPont Chemicals & Fluoroproducts in May 2012. He was named vice president for DuPont Performance Coatings - EMEA in November 2010. In 2006, he moved to Wilmington, Delaware to serve as global business and market director - Fluorochemicals. In 2004, after two years as sales manager for all Refinish Brands EMEA, he was appointed as regional director - Fluoroproducts EMEA based in Geneva, Switzerland. He moved to Belgium in 1999 to be part of the Herberts Acquisition/Integration Team within the newly formed DuPont Performance Coatings business and in 2000 was appointed business manager for the Spies Hecker Refinish paint brand based in Cologne, Germany. In 1996, he transferred to Wilmington, Delaware as global technical service manager for P&IP and was appointed global product manager Vamac® ethylene acrylic elastomers in 1998. In 1993 he transferred to Bad Homburg, Germany, and was appointed market development consultant for P&IP Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA). Mr. Vanlancker joined DuPont in 1988 in Belgium as a sales representative.
Christian W. Siemer, age 57, serves as our President - Chemical Solutions. He moved to this role in July 2014. Mr. Siemer joined DuPont in 2010 as the Managing Director of Clean Technologies, a business unit of DuPont Sustainable Solutions focused on process technology development and licensing. He led the successful acquisition of MECS Inc., the global leader in technology for the production of sulfuric acid. Mr. Siemer began his career in 1980 with Stauffer Chemicals as a process engineer. Following Stauffer’s acquisition by ICI plc, Mr. Siemer moved through a range of commercial roles and overseas assignments managing portfolios of international industrial and specialty chemical businesses.
David C. Shelton, age 52, serves as our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary. In 2011, Mr. Shelton was appointed Associate General Counsel, DuPont, and was responsible for the US Commercial team - the business lawyers and paralegals counseling all the DuPont business units with the exception of Agriculture and Pioneer. Mr. Shelton was the Commercial attorney to a variety of DuPont businesses including the Performance Materials platform, which he advised on international assignment in Geneva, and the businesses now comprising the DuPont Chemicals and Fluoroproducts business unit. Prior to that, Mr. Shelton advised the company on environmental and remediation matters as part of the environmental legal team. Mr. Shelton joined DuPont in 1996, after seven years in private practice as a litigator in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Beth Albright, age 49, serves as our Senior Vice President Human Resources. Mrs. Albright joined DuPont in October 2014 from Day & Zimmermann, where she held the position of Senior Vice-President Human Resources since May 2011. Prior to her experience at Day & Zimmermann, Mrs. Albright was the Global Vice President Human Resources for Tekni-Plex, which she joined in July 2009. She joined Rohm and Haas in 2000 and held various Human Resources supporting global businesses, technology, manufacturing and staff functions. In 1995 she joined FMC as site Human Resources manager at a manufacturing site and progressed into the corporate office. Mrs. Albright began her career with Fluor Daniel Construction in their Industrial Relations department in 1989.
Erich Parker, age 65, serves as our Vice President of Corporate Communications and Chief Brand Officer. Mr. Parker was appointed Creative Director and Global Director of Corporate Communications of DuPont in 2010. He led the initiative to develop corporate positioning and its creative expression through branded content and program sponsorship with large international media outlets. In 2008, Mr. Parker was appointed Communications Leader for DuPont’s Safety and Protection Platform. Prior to joining DuPont,

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Mr. Parker was principal of his own public relations and marketing communications firm based in Washington, D.C., and New York. Mr. Parker has also served as Executive Vice President of Association & Issues Management; Director of Communications for the American Academy of Actuaries; founding publisher and Executive Editor of the magazine Contingencies; and Public Affairs Aide for Renewable Energy to the Secretary of Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.


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PART II
Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters
The company's common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. (symbol CC). The number of record holders of common stock was approximately 56,880 at February 19, 2016.
Holders of the Company's common stock are entitled to receive dividends when they are declared by the Board of Directors. Dividends on common stock are generally declared and paid on a quarterly basis. The Stock Transfer Agent and Registrar is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
The company's stock began trading on July 1, 2015. The quarterly high and low trading stock prices and dividends per common share for 2015 are shown below.
    
Market Prices
 
Per Share Dividend Declared
2015
High
 
Low
 
Fourth Quarter
8.80
 
4.58
 
$0.03
Third Quarter
16.68
 
5.94
 
$0.55 1
 
1 
Dividend was declared prior to our separation from DuPont and paid on September 11, 2015 to our stockholders of record as of August 3, 2015.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
Not Applicable.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Not Applicable.

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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph presents the cumulative total shareholder return for the Company's common stock compared with the Standard & Poor's (S&P) MidCap 400 index and the S&P MidCap 400 Chemical index since our separation from DuPont.
The graph assumes that the values of Chemours' common stock, the S&P MidCap 400 index, and S&P MidCap 400 Chemical index were each $100 on July 1, 2015, the date that Chemours' common stock began "regular-way" trading on the New York Stock Exchange, and that all dividends were reinvested.
On January 29, 2016, Chemours was moved from the S&P MidCap 400 index to the S&P SmallCap 600 index.

Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents Chemours’ selected financial data. For periods ended December 31, 2011 through 2014, and for the first six months of the year ended December 31, 2015, certain expenses of DuPont were allocated to Chemours for corporate functions including information technology, research and development, finance, legal, insurance, compliance and human resources activities prior to our spin-off on July 1, 2015. Consequently, the financial information included here may not necessarily reflect what Chemours’ financial position, results of operations and cash flows would have been had it been an independent, publicly traded company during the periods presented. Certain reclassifications of prior years' data have been made to conform to the current year's presentation, primarily relating to the early adoption of balance sheet classification of deferred taxes discussed in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
For a better understanding, this section should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
  
Year Ended December 31,
 
  
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Summary of operations:
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
  
$
5,717

  
$
6,432

  
$
6,859

 
$
7,365

 
$
7,972

Employee separation and asset related charges, net
 
333

 
21

 
2

 
36

 

(Loss) income before income taxes
  
(188
)
  
550

  
576

 
1,485

 
1,907

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
  
(98
)
  
149

  
152

 
427

 
474

Net (loss) income attributable to Chemours
  
(90
)
  
400

  
423

 
1,057

 
1,431

Basic (loss) earnings per share of common stock 1
 
(0.50
)
 
2.21

 
2.34

 
5.84

 
7.91

Diluted (loss) earnings per share of common stock 1
 
(0.50
)
 
2.21

 
2.34

 
5.84

 
7.91

Financial position at year end:
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Working capital 2
  
835

  
543

  
474

 
601

 
585

Total assets
  
6,298

  
5,959

  
5,580

 
5,309

 
5,242

Borrowings and capital lease obligations, net 3
 
3,954

 
1

 
1

 
1

 
2

General:
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment
  
519

  
604

  
438

 
432

 
355

Depreciation and amortization
  
267

  
257

  
261

 
266

 
272

Dividends per common share 4
 
0.58

 

 

 

 

 
1 
For 2011-2014, pro forma earnings per share (EPS) was calculated based on 180,996,833 shares of Chemours common stock that were distributed to DuPont shareholders on July 1, 2015. The same number of shares was used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share since no Chemours equity awards were outstanding prior to the separation.
2  
Current assets minus current liabilities.
3 
Amount as of December 31, 2015 includes unamortized debt issuance costs of $60 million.
4  
Includes the following:
dividend of an aggregate amount of $100 million declared prior to separation by our then-Board of Directors (consisting of DuPont employees), which was paid on September 11, 2015 to our stockholders of record as of August 3, 2015, and
dividend of $0.03 per share declared after separation by our independent Board of Directors which was paid on December 14, 2015 to our stockholders of record as of November 13, 2015.

Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Introduction
Management’s discussion and analysis, which we refer to as “MD&A”, of our results of operations and financial condition supplements the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes included elsewhere herein to help provide an understanding of our financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of our operations. The discussion and analysis presented below refer to and should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K .
Overview
Chemours is a leading global provider of products that are key inputs in end-products and processes in a variety of industries. We deliver customized solutions with a wide range of industrial and specialty chemical products for markets including plastics and coatings, refrigeration and air conditioning, general industrial, mining and oil refining. Principal products include titanium dioxide, refrigerants, industrial fluoropolymer resins and a portfolio of industrial chemicals including sodium cyanide.
Chemours manages and reports operating results through three reportable segments: Titanium Technologies, Fluoroproducts and Chemical Solutions. Our position with each of these businesses reflects the strong value proposition we provide to our customers based on our long history and reputation in the chemical industry for safety, quality and reliability.

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On July 1, 2015 (the Distribution Date), DuPont completed the previously announced spin-off of Chemours by distributing Chemours' common stock, on a pro rata basis, to DuPont's stockholders of record as of the close of business on June 23, 2015 (the Record Date) (the transaction referred to herein as the Distribution). On the Distribution Date, each holder of DuPont common stock received one share of Chemours' common stock for every five shares of DuPont's common stock held on the Record Date. The spin-off was completed pursuant to a separation agreement and several other agreements with DuPont related to the spin-off, including an employee matters agreement, a tax matters agreement, a transition services agreement and an intellectual property cross-license agreement, each of which was filed with the SEC as an exhibit to our Current Report on Form 8-K on July 1, 2015. These agreements govern the relationship among Chemours and DuPont following the spin-off and provide for the allocation of various assets, liabilities, rights and obligations. These agreements also include arrangements for transition services to be provided by DuPont to Chemours.
Basis of Presentation
Prior to July 1, 2015, Chemours operations were included in DuPont's financial results in different legal forms, including but not limited to wholly-owned subsidiaries for which Chemours was the sole business, components of legal entities in which Chemours operated in conjunction with other DuPont businesses and a majority owned joint venture. For periods prior to July 1, 2015, the Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, have been prepared from DuPont’s historical accounting records and are presented on a stand-alone basis as if the business operations had been conducted independently from DuPont. The Consolidated Financial Statements include the historical operations, assets and liabilities of the legal entities that are considered to comprise the Chemours business, including certain environmental remediation and litigation obligations of DuPont and its subsidiaries that Chemours may be required to indemnify pursuant to the separation-related agreements executed prior to the Distribution. All of the allocations and estimates in the Consolidated Financial Statements prior to July 1, 2015 are based on assumptions that management believes are reasonable.
Recent Developments
Transformation Plan
During the third quarter of 2015, Chemours announced a plan to transform the company by reducing structural costs, growing market positions, optimizing its portfolio, refocusing investments, and enhancing its organization. Chemours expects the transformation plan to deliver $500 million of incremental Adjusted EBITDA improvement over 2015 through 2017. Based on our anticipated cost reduction and growth initiatives, we would expect an approximately similar improvement in pre-tax income. Through a combination of higher free cash flow from operations, lower capital spending, and potential proceeds from asset sales, the Company anticipates reducing its leverage ratio (net debt to Adjusted EBITDA) to approximately three times by year-end 2017. See Non-GAAP Financial Measures included herein for a definition of Adjusted EBITDA and other information regarding our use of non-GAAP measures.
Key actions initiated under the transformation plan during 2015 included Titanium Technologies plant and production line closures, Fluoroproduct line closures, announcement of the Reactive Metals Solutions (RMS) plant closure, global workforce reductions, and lower service, real estate and procurement costs.
Global Workforce Reductions
In June 2015, in light of continued weakness in the global titanium dioxide market cycle and continued foreign currency impacts due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar, Chemours implemented a restructuring plan to reduce and simplify its cost structure. This plan resulted in a global workforce reductions of more than 430 positions. As a result of this action, we recorded a pre-tax charge of $64 million for employee separation costs in the year ended December 31, 2015. The actions associated with this charge and all related payments are expected to be substantially complete by the end of 2016.
In November 2015, Chemours announced an additional global workforce reduction of approximately 430 positions. This action is part of ongoing efforts to streamline and simplify the structure of the organization worldwide and to reduce costs. As a result of this action, the Company recorded approximately $48 million of employee separation costs during the fourth quarter of 2015. The Company expects to complete this headcount reduction during 2016 and related payments are expected to be substantially complete in 2017.
Titanium Technologies Plant Closures
In August 2015, the Company announced the closure of its Edge Moor, Delaware manufacturing site. The Edge Moor plant produced TiO2 product for use in the paper industry and other applications where demand has declined steadily and has resulted

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in underused capacity at the plant. In addition, as part of the plan, the Company permanently shut down one underused TiO2 production line at its New Johnsonville, Tennessee plant. The Company stopped production at Edge Moor in September 2015 and immediately began decommissioning the plant. The Company expects to complete decommissioning activities in the first quarter of 2016 and will begin dismantling thereafter. Dismantling and removal activities are expected to be completed in early 2017.
As a result, during the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company recorded charges of approximately $140 million, which consist of property, plant and equipment and other asset impairment charges of $115 million, employee separation costs of $11 million and decommissioning costs of $14 million. These charges were allocated entirely to the Titanium Technology segment. The Company also expects to incur additional charges of approximately $50 million for decommissioning, dismantling and removal costs in 2016 to early 2017, which will be expensed as incurred. Because the Company is still in the early stages of implementing this plan, the amount and timing of the above estimates may differ materially from the amounts provided.
Fluoroproducts Restructuring
During the third quarter of 2015, in connection with the Company’s transformation plan announced in August 2015 and efforts to improve the profitability of the Fluoroproducts segment, management approved the shutdown of certain production lines of the segment’s manufacturing facilities in the United States.  As a result, the Company recorded restructuring charges of approximately $21 million, which consist of property, plant and equipment accelerated depreciation of $18 million, employee separation costs of $2 million and decommissioning costs of $1 million. The Company also expects to incur approximately $5 million of additional decommissioning, dismantling and removal costs in 2016 through 2017.
Chemical Solutions Portfolio Optimization Actions
In November 2015, the Company signed a definitive agreement to sell its aniline facility in Beaumont, Texas to The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) for approximately $140 million in cash. The Company expects the transaction to close and record gain on sale in the first quarter of 2016. At December 31, 2015, the assets at Beaumont were classified as held for sale on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet. As part of this transaction, Chemours has entered into an agreement to meet Dow’s additional aniline supply requirements with production from its Pascagoula, Mississippi facility. Chemours will also continue to serve other aniline customers from its Pascagoula plant.
Also during the fourth quarter of 2015, the Company announced the completion of the strategic review of its Reactive Metals Solutions (RMS) business and the decision to stop production at the Niagara Falls, NY site by the end of December 2016. The Niagara Falls plant has approximately 200 employees and contractors that will be impacted by this action. As a result, in the fourth quarter of 2015, the Company recorded approximately $12 million of employee separation costs. Additional restructuring charges of approximately $15 million for contract termination, decommissioning and site redevelopment are expected to be incurred in 2016 through 2018. Because the Company is still in the early stages of implementing this plan, the amount and timing of the above estimates may differ materially from the amounts provided.
Prior to the plant closure decision, the RMS plant assets were evaluated for impairment during the third quarter of 2015. We determined that the manufacturing facility should be assessed for impairment driven primarily by continued losses experienced by the business. The assessment indicated that the carrying amount of the long-lived assets were not recoverable when compared to the expected undiscounted cash flows of business. Based on our assessment of the fair value of the related asset groups, we determined that the carrying value of RMS' asset groups exceeded its fair value. As a result of the impairment test, a $45 million pre-tax impairment charge was recorded in the Chemical Solutions segment. See Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
In addition, also during the third quarter of 2015, the Company determined that indicators were present in the Sulfur reporting unit which suggested that the fair value of the reporting unit had declined below the carrying value, primarily driven by lower than forecasted revenue and profitability levels for 2015 and future periods. The interim goodwill impairment analysis performed in the third quarter of 2015 resulted in a goodwill impairment of $25 million in 2015. See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

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Our Results and Business Highlights
Revenue and Growth: Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 were $5.7 billion, a decrease of 11.1% from $6.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014, which was primarily due to continued pressure on TiO2 prices, the negative impact of foreign currency and soft demand conditions for certain fluoropolymers products.
Profitability: We recognized a net loss of $90 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared with net income of $401 million and $424 million for the same periods in 2014 and 2013, respectively. The decrease in our profitability during the year was primarily the result of a decline in our net sales as well as the impact of various restructuring activities discussed in the Recent Developments section of this MD&A and our indebtedness, which resulted to pre-tax charges of $333 million of employee separation and asset related charges, net and $132 million of interest expense, partially offset by the related income tax benefits of approximately $150 million. Adjusted EBITDA was $573 million, $876 million and $984 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively.
Results of Operations
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net sales
$
5,717

 
$
6,432

 
$
6,859

Cost of goods sold
4,762

 
5,072

 
5,395

Gross profit
955

 
1,360

 
1,464

Selling, general and administrative expense
632

 
685

 
768

Research and development expense
97

 
143

 
164

Employee separation and asset related charges, net
333

 
21

 
2

Goodwill impairment
25

 

 

Total expenses
1,087

 
849

 
934

Equity in earnings of affiliates
22

 
20

 
22

Interest expense, net
(132
)
 

 

Other income, net
54

 
19

 
24

(Loss) income before income taxes
(188
)
 
550

 
576

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
(98
)
 
149

 
152

Net (loss) income
(90
)
 
401

 
424

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

 
1

 
1

Net (loss) income attributable to Chemours
$
(90
)
 
$
400

 
$
423

Net sales
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: The table below shows the impact of price, currency, volume and portfolio on net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with 2014:
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage change due to:
(Dollars in millions)
2015 Net Sales
 
Percentage Change vs 2014
 
Local Price
 
Currency Effect
 
Volume
 
Portfolio/Other
Worldwide
$
5,717

 
(11
)%
 
(5
)%
 
(4
)%
 
(1
)%
 
(1
)%
Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2015 were $5.7 billion, a decrease of approximately 11% compared to $6.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014, which was primarily due to continued pressure on TiO2 prices and the negative impact of foreign currency, offset by price increases in Fluoroproducts and volume growth in Chemical Solutions portfolio.

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For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: The table below shows the impact of price, currency, volume and portfolio on net sales for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared with 2013:
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage change due to:
(Dollars in millions)
2014 Net Sales
 
Percentage Change vs 2013
 
Local Price
 
Currency Effect
 
Volume
 
Portfolio/Other
Worldwide
$
6,432

 
(6
)%
 
(5
)%
 
%
 
3
%
 
(4
)%
Net sales of $6.4 billion for the year ended December 31, 2014 decreased 6% primarily in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily due to a portfolio change in the Chemical Solutions segment and lower prices principally for TiO2 and refrigerants. The portfolio change involved a customer’s election to exercise a put/call option to acquire the entire property and equipment of the Baytown facility on December 31, 2013. Decreased selling prices for TiO2 were partially offset by increased volumes for OpteonTM YF refrigerant.
Cost of goods sold
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: Cost of goods sold (COGS) decreased 6% during the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2014. Approximately 4% of the decrease was driven by lower production costs from lower costs of raw materials, lower employee benefits and the impact of global headcount reduction as a result of our transformation plan. The decrease was due to lower sales volume and mix, as well slightly favorable currency impact. COGS as a percentage of net sales increased by 4% to 83% for the year ended December 31, 2015 primarily driven by lower average prices primarily in TiO2 and the unfavorable foreign currency impact on our net sales over our fixed U.S. dollar costs.
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: COGS decreased 6% during the year ended December 31, 2014 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease is primarily driven by a portfolio change in the Chemical Solutions segment involving a customer’s election to exercise a put/call option to acquire the entire property and equipment of the Baytown facility, coupled with a decrease in pension costs. The portfolio change accounted for $248 million of the decrease in COGS. The decrease in pension costs was primarily related to improved returns on pension plan assets and an increase in the discount rate. COGS as a percentage of net sales was 79%, consistent with the year ended December 31, 2013.
The following table shows COGS as a percent of net sales.
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net sales
$
5,717

 
$
6,432

 
6,859

COGS
4,762

 
5,072

 
5,395

COGS as a percent of net sales
83
%
 
79
%
 
79
%
Selling, general and administrative expense
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: Selling, general and administrative expense (SG&A) decreased 8% to $632 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2014. This decrease is primarily driven by the cost reduction initiatives implemented during the year, such as the global workforce reduction and other initiatives in connection with the transformation plan, as well as lower employee benefits (including pension), slightly offset by $17 million of transactions, legal and other related charges and approximately $4 million higher stock-based compensation charges primarily related to the converted awards. SG&A as a percentage of net sales was 11% for both periods.
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: SG&A decreased 11% to $685 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease was primarily driven by lower pension costs in 2014 and higher legal fees in 2013 related to the TiO2 antitrust litigation, which was resolved in 2013. SG&A as a percentage of net sales was 11% for both periods.
Research and development expense
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: Research and development (R&D) expense decreased by $46 million or 32% for the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2014. Reductions in R&D spend

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were primarily driven by decisions to either delay or terminate projects following our separation from DuPont. The global workforce reduction initiative also impacted the R&D function and contributed to the decrease in R&D expense. R&D expense as a percentage of net sales was 2% for both periods.
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: R&D decreased by $21 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 in comparison with the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily due to lower pension costs. R&D expense as a percentage of net sales was 2% for both periods.
Interest expense, net
We incurred interest expense of $132 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 related to our financing transactions completed in May 2015 in connection with the separation. There was no comparable expense in 2014 or 2013. Refer to Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Liquidity and Capital Resources section of this MD&A for additional information related to our indebtedness.
Employee separation and asset related charges, net
For the year ended December 31, 2015, we recorded pre-tax charges of approximately $333 million for employee separation and other asset related charges in connection with various restructuring activities during the year. This cost includes $112 million severance charges from our global workforce reduction, $140 million related to our capacity optimization in our Titanium Technologies segment, including the closure of our Edge Moor production facility, $21 million of Fluoroproducts restructuring activities, $57 million of restructuring relating to our Chemical Solutions segment, and impairment charges. See the Recent Developments section of this MD&A for further information.
Other income, net
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: For the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the year ended December 31, 2014, other income, net increased by $35 million. This change is comprised of a $42 million gain on foreign exchange forward contracts, lower foreign currency exchange losses of approximately $23 million driven by the continued strengthening of the U.S. dollar versus the Mexican peso, the Euro and other currencies, and additional technology and licensing income of approximately $11 million. These increases were offset by a loss on sale of assets and businesses of $9 million in 2015 compared to the gain of $40 million recognized in 2014 discussed below. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for details of Other income, net.
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: For the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013, other income, net decreased by $5 million. This change is comprised of a $40 million gain on sales of assets and businesses in 2014, offset by a $35 million increase in foreign currency exchange losses, driven by the strengthening of the U.S. dollar versus the Euro and Swiss franc in 2014, and a reduction of $7 million for leasing, contract services and miscellaneous income. In addition, for the year ended December 31, 2013, Chemours recognized a $7 million gain on purchase of an equity investment that did not occur in 2014.
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014: For the year ended December 31, 2015, Chemours recorded a tax benefit of $98 million with an effective income tax rate of approximately 52%. For the year ended December 31, 2014, Chemours recorded a tax provision of $149 million with an effective tax rate of approximately 27%. The $247 million decrease in the tax provision and the corresponding increase in effective tax rate were due primarily to tax benefits recognized from the restructuring and asset impairment charges in the U.S. recorded in the second half of 2015, partially offset by earnings in foreign jurisdictions.
For the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013: For the year ended December 31, 2014, Chemours recorded a tax provision of $149 million with an effective income tax rate of approximately 27%. For the year ended December 31, 2013, Chemours recorded a tax provision of $152 million with an effective income tax rate of approximately 26%. The decrease in the tax provision was primarily due to a decrease in earnings. The increase in the effective tax rate in 2014 compared to 2013 was primarily due to the geographic mix of earnings and valuation allowance partly offset by a one-time tax benefit recognized in 2014 relating to a tax accounting method change. This tax accounting method change allowed an increase in tax basis in certain depreciable fixed assets which resulted in a net tax benefit for Chemours of $10 million in 2014.

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Segment Reviews
Adjusted EBITDA represents our primary measure of segment performance and is defined as income (loss) before income taxes excluding the following:
interest expense, depreciation and amortization,
non-operating pension and other postretirement employee benefit costs,
exchange gains (losses),
employee separation, asset-related charges and other charges, net,
asset impairments, 
gains (losses) on sale of business or assets, and
other items not considered indicative of our ongoing operational performance and expected to occur infrequently.
A reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net (loss) income for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 is included in Non-GAAP Financial Measures in Item 7 and in Note 23 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Titanium Technologies

 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Segment Net Sales
 
$
2,392

 
$
2,937

 
3,019

Adjusted EBITDA
 
326

 
723

 
726

Adjusted EBITDA Margin
 
14
%
 
25
%

24
%
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
Change in segment net sales from prior period
 
2015
 
2014
Price
 
(12
)%
 
(4
)%
Volume
 
(2
)%
 
1
 %
Currency
 
(5
)%
 
 %
Portfolio / Other
 
 %
 
 %
Total Change
 
(19
)%
 
(3
)%
2015 versus 2014: Net sales decreased by $545 million or 19% for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared with the same period in 2014, due primarily to lower selling prices and the continued unfavorable effect of foreign currency primarily against the Euro. Oversupply in the global titanium dioxide industry and weak demand continue to put downward pressure on pricing in all regions.
Adjusted EBITDA decreased during the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with same period in 2014. Adjusted EBITDA margin also decreased during the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with same period in 2014. Both decreases were primarily driven by lower sales and margin due to pricing pressures and unfavorable effects of foreign currency. Offsetting these decreases were productivity improvement initiatives, which resulted in lower raw materials, energy and plant operating costs, as well as the impact of our cost reduction programs, which included certain Titanium Technology plant shut-downs and global headcount reductions.
2014 versus 2013: Net sales decreased by $82 million or 3% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared with the same period in 2013. This decrease was due to lower prices which was partially offset by an increase in volume.
Adjusted EBITDA decreased marginally in 2014 while adjusted EBITDA margin remained relatively consistent in 2014 when compared to 2013.

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Fluoroproducts
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Segment Net Sales
 
$
2,230

 
$
2,327

 
$
2,379

Adjusted EBITDA
 
300

 
282

 
395

Adjusted EBITDA Margin
 
13
%
 
12
%

17
%
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
Change in segment net sales from prior period
 
2015
 
2014
Price
 
2
 %
 
(8
)%
Volume
 
 %
 
6
 %
Currency
 
(4
)%
 
 %
Portfolio / Other
 
(2
)%
 
 %
Total Change
 
(4
)%
 
(2
)%
2015 versus 2014: Net sales decreased $97 million or 4% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with the same period in 2014. Net sales were unfavorably impacted by foreign currency exchange rates, primarily related to the Euro, Brazilian real, and Japanese yen, and continued weaker demand for industrial resins. Favorable product mix with strong Opteon™ refrigerant adoption delivered increased prices and steady overall volumes over the prior year.
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin increased during the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with same periods in 2014. Both increases were primarily due to product mix and cost reduction efforts including global headcount reductions during the second half of 2015.
2014 versus 2013: Net sales decreased by $52 million or 2% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared with the same period in 2013, primarily due to lower selling prices for refrigerants and industrial resins. Refrigerant prices decreased in North America as a result of actions by the EPA related to allowances on HCFC's (R-22) and the impact of lower cost Chinese imports on the overall pricing of HFC (R-134a) refrigerants and refrigerant blends globally. Industrial resins prices declined primarily as a result of pricing pressure from the addition of new production capacity by competitors. Pricing decreases were partially offset by higher volumes.
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin decreased, primarily due to lower prices and production shutdowns. Margin impact from lower prices was partially offset by lower business and overhead costs from productivity improvements. Additionally in 2014, expense relating to the short-term incentive plan was lower by approximately $8 million.
Chemical Solutions
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Segment Net Sales
 
$
1,095

 
$
1,168

 
$
1,461

Adjusted EBITDA
 
29

 
17

 
101

Adjusted EBITDA Margin
 
3
%
 
1
%

7
%

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Year Ended December 31,
Change in segment net sales from prior period
 
2015
 
2014
Price
 
(5
)%
 
(2
)%
Volume
 
2
 %
 
1
 %
Currency
 
(3
)%
 
 %
Portfolio / Other
 
 %
 
(19
)%
Total Change
 
(6
)%
 
(20
)%
2015 versus 2014: Net sales decreased by $73 million or 6% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared with the same period in 2014, primarily due to lower prices based on contractual pass-through terms, changes in the mix of products sold as well as the unfavorable impact of foreign currency exchange rates including the Mexican peso, Canadian dollar and the Euro. These decreases were partially offset by volume increases in Cyanide and Sulfur due to strong demand.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin increased during the year ended December 31, 2015 in comparison with same period in 2014. The slight increase in Adjusted EBITDA was driven primarily by lower R&D expense and cost reduction efforts, including the global headcount reductions, during the second half of 2015.
2014 versus 2013: Net sales decreased $293 million or 20%, for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared with the same period in 2013, primarily due to the portfolio impact of a customer's election to exercise a put/call option to acquire the entire property and equipment of the Baytown facility on December 31, 2013. Sales decreased further from lower prices across all products.
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin decreased, primarily due to the portfolio impact noted above and lower prices.

2016 Outlook
With our transformation plan on track, we expect to reduce structural costs by an additional $200 million in 2016. These cost savings are primarily from actions taken during 2015 including facilities closures, headcount reductions, and procurement and productivity enhancements. In 2016, we suspended annual salary increases globally, subject to contractual and legal limitations, and we halted a discretionary contribution component in our U.S. 401(k) plan that will contribute toward our $200 million target. We anticipate that we will need to establish additional cost reduction initiatives during 2016 to realize our target of reducing structural costs by $350 million through 2017.
For 2016, we believe that those cost reductions in our transformation plan along with growth from Opteon™ and the benefits of our Altamira startup, will help us deliver full year Adjusted EBITDA above our 2015 performance. Along with a reduction in capital spending, we expect to generate modestly positive free cash flow during the year. Our outlook reflects our current visibility and expectations on market factors, such as currency movements, TiO2 pricing, and end-market demand.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Prior to our spin-off on July 1, 2015, transfers of cash to and from DuPont’s cash management system were reflected in DuPont Company Net Investment in the historical Consolidated Balance Sheets, Statements of Cash Flows and Statements of Changes in DuPont Company Net Investment. DuPont funded our cash needs through the date of the separation. Chemours has a historical pattern of seasonality, with working capital use of cash in the first half of the year, and a working capital source of cash in the second half of the year.
Chemours' primary source of liquidity is cash generated from operations, available cash and borrowings under the debt financing arrangements as described below. We believe these sources are sufficient to fund our planned operations and to meet our interest, dividend and contractual obligations. Our financial policy seeks to deleverage by using free cash flow to repay outstanding borrowings, selectively invest for growth to enhance our portfolio including certain strategic capital investments, and return cash to shareholders through dividend payments.
While we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of DuPont, our then-Board of Directors, consisting of DuPont employees, declared a dividend of an aggregate amount of $100 million for the third quarter of 2015, which was paid on September 11, 2015 to our

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stockholders of record as of August 3, 2015. On September 1, 2015, our independent Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.03 per share, which was paid on December 14, 2015 to our stockholders of record on November 13, 2015.
The separation agreements set forth a process to true-up cash and working capital transferred to us from DuPont at separation.  In January 2016, Chemours and DuPont entered into an agreement, contingent upon the credit agreement amendment described herein, which provided for the extinguishment of payment obligations of cash and working capital true-ups previously contemplated in the separation agreements.  As a result, Chemours was not required to make any payments to DuPont, nor did DuPont make any payments to Chemours.  In addition, the agreement set forth an advance payment of approximately $190 million, which was paid to Chemours in February 2016, for certain specified goods and services that Chemours expects to provide to DuPont over the next twelve to fifteen months under existing agreements with Chemours.
Over the next 12 months, Chemours expects to have significant interest, capital expenditure and restructuring payments. We expect to fund these payments through cash generated from operations, asset dispositions, available cash and borrowings under the revolving credit facility. We anticipate that our operations and debt financing arrangements will provide sufficient liquidity over the next 12 months. The availability under our Revolving Credit Facility is subject to the last 12 months of our consolidated EBITDA as defined under the credit agreement.
Cash Flow
The following table sets forth a summary of the net cash provided by (used for) operating, investing and financing activities.
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Cash provided by operating activities
 
$
182

 
$
505

 
$
798

Cash used for investing activities
 
(497
)
 
(560
)
 
(424
)
Cash provided by (used for) financing activities
 
687

 
55

 
(374
)
Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities decreased by $323 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the same period in 2014, due to lower earnings than the prior year, payments on restructuring activities and interest payments on our 2015 financing transactions.
Cash provided by operating activities decreased by $293 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared with the same period in 2013, primarily due to increased payments of trade accounts payable for raw materials and lower earnings in 2014. The primary cause of the decrease was the timing of ore purchases with longer payment terms in the second half of 2013, which resulted in payments in early 2014. In addition, Chemours paid $72 million related to titanium dioxide antitrust litigation in 2014.
Cash Used for Investing Activities
Cash used for investing activities decreased $63 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the same period in 2014, primarily as a result of a $85 million decrease in capital expenditures of which $80 million relates to the expansion of Titanium Technologies’ Altamira plant in Mexico and approximately $50 million from other on-going and expansion activities, partially offset by increase in separation-related capital expenditures of $45 million. In addition, we realized approximately $42 million of net gain from foreign exchange contract settlements entered into in 2015 after the separation and no similar realized gains or losses were incurred prior to the separation.  The decreases in cash used for investing activities are partially offset by incremental investments made to our unconsolidated affiliate in China and lower sales proceeds due to lesser business and asset sale activities during 2015. 
Cash used for investing activities increased $136 million for 2014 compared to the same period in 2013 primarily due to the expansion of Titanium Technologies’ Altamira plant in Mexico.
Capital expenditures relating to our Altamira expansion were $146 million, $227 million and $159 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Cash Provided by (Used for) Financing Activities
Cash provided by financing activities increased by $632 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the same period in 2014, due primarily from the proceeds from our financing transactions offset by the net transfers to DuPont in connection

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with the separation. Through June 30, 2015, DuPont managed Chemours’ cash and financing arrangements and all excess cash generated through earnings was deemed remitted to DuPont and all sources of cash were deemed funded by DuPont. Prior to the spin-off on July 1, 2015, Chemours remitted approximately $3.4 billion to DuPont in the form of a dividend, using cash received from issuance of debt. See Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Cash provided by financing activities was $55 million in 2014 as compared to cash used for financing activities of $374 million in 2013. Lower cash provided by operations as discussed above and higher purchases of property, plant and equipment of $166 million, primarily due to the Altamira expansion, resulted in cash transfer from DuPont to fund the Company's operations.
Current Assets
 
 
December 31,
 
December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
Cash
 
$
366

 
$

Accounts and notes receivable - trade, net
 
859

 
846

Inventories
 
972

 
1,052

Prepaid expenses and other
 
104

 
43

Total current assets
 
$
2,301

 
$
1,941

In 2014, Chemours participated in DuPont’s centralized cash management and financing programs. Disbursements were made through centralized accounts payable systems which are operated by DuPont. Cash receipts were transferred to centralized accounts, also maintained by DuPont. As such, we did not reflect a cash balance in our financial statements prior to separation. Cash as of December 31, 2015 includes the cash provided by DuPont at separation and our net increase in cash since the separation.
Accounts and notes receivable - trade, net at December 31, 2015 increased $13 million compared to December 31, 2014 primarily due to timing of collections of trade accounts receivable offset by unfavorable currency translation.
Inventories at December 31, 2015 decreased $80 million compared to December 31, 2014 primarily due to an effort to decrease inventory on hand as well lower cost of raw materials and lower production costs resulting from our transformation plan.
Prepaid expenses and other increased $61 million primarily due to our aniline facility in Beaumont, Texas which is classified as held-for-sale as of December 31, 2015 and included as other current assets. Also included is a prepaid premium on insurance programs we entered into in the normal course of business after the separation. Prior to the spin, Chemours participated in DuPont insurance programs.
Current Liabilities
 
 
December 31,
 
December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
Accounts payable
 
$
973

 
$
1,046

Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt
 
39

 

Other accrued liabilities
 
454

 
352

Total current liabilities
 
$
1,466

 
$
1,398

Accounts payable decreased compared to December 31, 2014 due to timing of payments to vendors, and lower purchases and capital expenditures. Short-term borrowings and current portion of long-term debt primarily reflects our financing transactions with our unconsolidated affiliate and the required quarterly installment payments on our senior secured term loan. We had no comparable financing transactions in 2014. Other accrued liabilities increased due to employee separation accruals related to 2015 actions and accrued interest on debt issued in 2015.
Financing Transactions
On May 12, 2015, Chemours entered into certain financing transactions in connection with the Distribution and in recognition of the assets contributed to us by DuPont in anticipation of the separation. The proceeds from the financing transactions were used to fund a cash distribution to DuPont of $3.4 billion and a distribution in kind of Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $507 million. See Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of these transactions.

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The credit agreement provided for a seven-year senior secured term loan (the Term Loan Facility) in a principal amount of $1.5 billion repayable in equal quarterly installments at a rate of one percent of the original principal amount per year, with the balance payable on the final maturity date. The Term Loan Facility was issued with a $7 million original issue discount and bears variable interest rate subject to a floor of 3.75%. The proceeds from the Term Loan Facility were used to fund a portion of the distribution to DuPont, along with related fees and expenses.
Prior to an amendment in February 2016, the credit agreement also provided for a five-year $1.0 billion senior secured revolving credit facility (the Revolving Credit Facility). In February 2016, an amendment to the Revolving Credit Facility reduced the capacity to $750 million beginning in the first quarter of 2016 and amended certain covenants (see Debt Covenant discussion included herein). The proceeds of any loans made under the Revolving Credit Facility can be used to finance capital expenditures, acquisitions, working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes. Availability under the Revolving Credit Facility is subject to certain covenant limitations. At December 31, 2015, the facility was undrawn with a borrowing availability of approximately $625 million. We had $129 million letters of credit issued and outstanding under this facility at December 31, 2015.
Chemours' obligations under the Term Loan Facility and Revolving Credit Facility (collectively, the Senior Secured Credit Facilities) are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by all of its material domestic subsidiaries, subject to certain agreed upon exceptions. The obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities are also, subject to certain agreed upon exceptions, secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of Chemours and its material wholly-owned domestic subsidiaries' assets, including 100 percent of the stock of domestic subsidiaries and 65 percent of the stock of certain foreign subsidiaries.
Additionally, on May 12, 2015, Chemours issued approximately $2,503 million aggregate principal of senior unsecured notes (the Notes) in a private placement. The 2023 notes (the 2023 Notes) with an aggregate principal amount of $1,350 million bear interest at a rate of 6.625% per annum and will mature on May 15, 2023 with all principal paid at maturity. The 2025 notes (the 2025 Notes) with an aggregate principal amount of $750 million bear interest at a rate of 7.000% per annum and will mature on May 15, 2025 with all principal paid at maturity. The 2023 euro notes (the Euro Notes) with an aggregate principal amount of €360 million bear interest at a rate of 6.125% per annum and will mature on May 15, 2023 with all principal paid at maturity. Interest on the Notes is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears on May 15 and November 15 of each year, which commenced on November 15, 2015. The Notes were offered in the U.S. to persons reasonably believed to be qualified institutional buyers in reliance on Rule 144A under the Securities Act, and outside the U.S. to non-U.S. persons in reliance on Regulation S under the Securities Act. Chemours is required to register the Notes with the SEC within 465 days. If Chemours fails to do so, it would be required to pay additional interest at a rate of 0.25% for the first 90 days following a registration default and additional 0.25% per annum with respect to each subsequent 90-day period, up to a maximum rate of 0.50%, until the registration requirements are met. Application is also expected to be made to the Irish Stock Exchange for the approval of listing particulars in relation to the Euro Notes prior to the first anniversary of the issue date of the Euro Notes.
Each series of Notes is or will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, by Chemours’ existing and future domestic subsidiaries that guarantee (the Guarantors) the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or that guarantee other indebtedness of Chemours or any guarantor in an aggregate principal amount in excess of $75 million (the Guarantees). The Notes are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of Chemours. The Guarantees are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of the Guarantors. The Notes rank equally in right of payment to all of Chemours’ existing and future unsecured unsubordinated debt and senior in right of payment to all of Chemours’ existing and future debt that is by its terms expressly subordinated in right of payment to the Notes. The Notes are subordinated to indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities as well as any future secured debt to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt. Chemours’ is obligated to offer to purchase the Notes at a price of (a) 101 percent of their principal amount, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase, upon the occurrence of certain change of control events and (b) 100 percent of their principal amount, together with accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the date of purchase, with the proceeds from certain asset dispositions. These restrictions and prohibitions are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions set forth in the Indenture, including without limitation, reinvestment rights with respect to the proceeds of asset dispositions. Chemours is permitted to redeem some or all of the 2023 Notes and Euro Notes by paying a “make-whole” premium prior to May 15, 2018. Chemours also may redeem some or all of the 2023 Notes and Euro Notes on or after May 15, 2018 and thereafter at specified redemption prices. Chemours also may redeem some or all of the 2025 Notes on or after May 15, 2020 at specified redemption prices.
Debt Covenants
Chemours is subject to certain debt covenants that, among other things, limit Chemours and certain of Chemours’ subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, pay dividends or make other distributions, prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt, make loans and investments, sell assets, incur liens, enter into transactions with affiliates and consolidate or merge. These covenants are subject to a number of exceptions and qualifications set forth in the respective agreements.

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In the third quarter of 2015, Chemours and its Revolving Credit Facility lenders entered into an amendment to the Revolving Credit Facility that strengthens Chemours' financial position by providing enhanced liquidity to implement the Transformation Plan. The amendment modified the consolidated EBITDA definition in the covenant calculation to include pro forma benefits of announced cost reduction initiatives. Further, in the first quarter of 2016, Chemours and its Revolving Credit Facility lenders entered into a second amendment to the Revolving Credit Facility that (a) replaced the total net leverage ratio financial covenant with a senior secured net leverage ratio; (b) reduced the minimum required levels of interest expense coverage ratio covenant; (c) increased the limits and time horizon for inclusion of pro forma benefits of announced cost reduction initiatives into consolidated EBITDA definition for the purposes of calculating financial covenants; and (d) reduced the revolver availability from $1.0 billion to $750 million. These changes provide further flexibility to Chemours to sustain a potentially prolonged downturn in the business and enhance its liquidity to implement the transformation plan.
The credit agreement contains financial covenants which, solely with respect to the Revolving Credit Facility as amended, require Chemours not to exceed a maximum senior secured net leverage ratio of 3.50 to 1.00 and to maintain a minimum interest coverage ratio of 1.75 to 1.00 until December 31, 2016. In addition, the credit agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants that, among other things, limit or restrict Chemours and its subsidiaries' ability, subject to certain exceptions, to incur liens, merge, consolidate or sell, transfer or lease assets, make investments, pay dividends, transact with subsidiaries and incur indebtedness. The credit agreement also contains customary representations and warranties and events of default.
The Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the Notes contain events of default customary for these types of financings, including cross default and cross acceleration provisions to material indebtedness of Chemours. Chemours was in compliance with its debt covenants as of December 31, 2015.
Maturities
There are no debt maturities in any of the next seven years, except, in accordance with the credit agreement, Chemours has required principal payments related to the Term Loan Facility of $15 million in each year from 2016 to 2020. Debt maturities related to the Term Loan Facility and the Notes in 2021 and beyond will be $3,913 million.
Supplier Financing
Chemours has entered into a global paying services agreement with a financial institution. Under this agreement, the financial institution acts as the paying agent for Chemours with respect to accounts payable due to our suppliers who elect to participate in the program. The agreement allows our suppliers to sell their receivables to the financial institution at the discretion of both parties on terms that are negotiated between them. Our obligations to our suppliers, including the amounts due and scheduled payment dates, are not impacted by our suppliers' decisions to sell their receivables under this program. At December 31, 2015, the payment instructions from Chemours were $171 million, of which certain suppliers have elected to be paid early in an aggregate amount of $161 million. The available capacity under this program can vary based on the number of investors participating in this program at any point of time.
Capital Expenditures
Our operations are capital intensive, requiring ongoing investment to upgrade or enhance existing operations and to meet environmental and operational regulations. Our capital requirements have consisted, and are expected to continue to consist, primarily of:
ongoing capital expenditures, such as those required to maintain equipment reliability, the integrity and safety of our manufacturing sites and to comply with environmental regulations;
investments in our existing facilities to help support introduction of new products and de-bottleneck to expand capacity and grow our business; and
investment in projects to reduce future operating costs and enhance productivity.

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The following table summarizes ongoing and expansion capital expenditures (which includes environmental capital expenditures), as well as expenditures related to our separation from DuPont, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Titanium Technologies
 
$
255

 
$
365

 
$
290

Fluoroproducts
 
142

 
133

 
96

Chemical Solutions
 
117

 
106

 
52

Corporate & Other
 
5

 

 

Total Capital Expenditures 1
 
$
519

 
$
604

 
$
438

 
1 Includes separation-related capital expenditures of $66 million and $21 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
The decrease in our ongoing capital expenditures in 2015 compared with 2014 is due to lower spending in 2015 as we finish the expansion of our Altamira production facility. Capital expenditures as a percentage of our net sales were 9%, 9% and 6% for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
We expect our capital expenditures, excluding separation-related spending, to decline in 2016 and 2017 as we finish the expansion of our Altamira production facility, reaching a more normalized level of approximately $350 million per year beginning in 2017. For further detail related to our environmental capital expenditures, please see the Environmental Matters section of this MD&A.
Contractual Obligations
Information related to the Company's significant contractual obligations is summarized in the table below.
 
 
 
 
Payments Due In
(Dollars in millions)
 
Total at December 31, 2015
 
2016
 
2017 - 2018
 
2019 - 2020
 
2021 and Beyond
Long-term debt obligations 1
 
$
3,988

 
$
15

 
$
30

 
$
30

 
$
3,913

Interest payments on long-term debt obligations 1
 
1,702

 
223

 
444

 
442

 
593

Operating leases
 
346

  
84

  
135

  
89

  
38

Purchase obligations 2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Raw material obligations
 
1,358

  
111

  
168

  
156

  
923

Utility obligations
 
119

  
26

  
35

  
18

  
40

Other
 
169

  
60

  
73

  
26

  
10

Total purchase obligations
 
1,646

  
197

  
276

  
200

  
973

Other liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Workers’ compensation
 
38

  
6

  
17

  
7

  
8

Asset retirement obligations
 
42

  
1

  
4

  

  
37

Environmental remediation
 
290

  
67

  
89

  
62

  
72

Legal settlements
 
20

  
7

  
4

  
4

  
5

Employee separation costs
 
99

 
76

 
23

 

 

Other 3
 
61

  
20

  
4

  
5

  
32

Total other liabilities
 
550

  
177

  
141


78


154

Total contractual obligations 4
 
$
8,232

  
$
696


$
1,026


$
839


$
5,671

 
1 To calculate payments due for principal and interest, we assumed that interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and outstanding borrowings under credit facilities were unchanged from December 31, 2015 through maturity.

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2 Represents enforceable and legally binding agreements to purchase goods or services that specify fixed or minimum quantities; fixed minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the agreement.
3 Includes expected contributions and benefits payments in excess of plan assets to be made to fund our pension and other long-term employee benefit plans. Actual payments will depend on several factors, including investment performance and discount rates, and may also be affected by changes in applicable local requirements. See Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
4 Due to uncertainty regarding the completion of tax audits and possible outcomes, we are unable to determine the timing of payments related to unrecognized tax benefits. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
Information with respect to Chemours' guarantees is included in Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Historically, Chemours has not made significant payments to satisfy guarantee obligations; however, Chemours believes it has the financial resources to satisfy these guarantees in the event required.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for a summary of recent accounting pronouncements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Chemours' significant accounting policies are more fully described in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Management believes that the application of these policies on a consistent basis enables the Company to provide the users of the financial statements with useful and reliable information about the Company's operating results and financial condition.
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts, including, but not limited to, receivable and inventory valuations, impairment of tangible and intangible assets, long-term employee benefit obligations, income taxes, restructuring liabilities, environmental matters, and litigation. Management's estimates are based on historical experience, facts and circumstances available at the time and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable. The Company reviews these matters and reflects changes in estimates as appropriate. Management believes that the following represents some of the more critical judgment areas in the applications of the Company's accounting policies which could have a material effect on the Company's financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
Goodwill
The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired, including identified intangibles, in a business combination is recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually on October 1; however, impairment tests are performed more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. Impairment exists when carrying value exceeds fair value. Goodwill is evaluated for impairment at the reporting unit level.
Evaluating goodwill for impairment is a two-step process. In the first step, Chemours compares the carrying value of net assets to the fair value of the related operations. Chemours estimates the fair value of its reporting units using the income approach based on the present value of future cash flows. The factors considered in determining the cash flows include: 1) macroeconomic conditions; 2) industry and market considerations; 3) costs of raw materials, labor or other costs having a negative effect on earnings and cash flows; 4) overall financial performance; and 5) other relevant entity-specific events. If the fair value is determined to be less than the carrying value, a second step is performed to compute the amount of the impairment.
As a result of the tests performed in 2015, there was no impairment of the Company's goodwill as the fair value substantially exceeded the carrying values for each reporting units tested, except for our Sulfur reporting unit in the Chemicals Solutions segment.
Goodwill of $25 million was allocated to our Sulfur reporting unit. We performed the two-step impairment test for the Sulfur reporting unit and determined that the implied fair value of its goodwill was lower than its carrying value, resulting in a full impairment of the reporting unit's goodwill. As a result, Chemours recorded a $25 million pre-tax impairment charge for goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2015 in the Chemicals Solutions segment. See Note 13 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussions.
The determination of whether or not goodwill is impaired involves a significant level of judgment in the assumptions underlying the approach used to determine the estimated fair value of our reporting units. Chemours believes that assumptions and rates used

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in the impairment assessment are reasonable. However, these assumptions are judgmental and variations in any assumptions could result in materially different calculations of fair value. The Company will continue to evaluate goodwill on an annual basis as of October 1, and whenever events or changes in circumstances, such as significant adverse changes in operating results, market conditions or changes in management’s business strategy, indicate that there may be a probable indicator of impairment. It is possible that the assumptions used by management related to the evaluation may change or that actual results may vary significantly from management’s estimates.
Valuation of Assets
The assets and liabilities of acquired businesses are measured at their estimated fair values at the dates of acquisition. The determination and allocation of fair value to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is based on various assumptions and valuation methodologies requiring considerable management judgment, including estimates based on historical information, current market data and future expectations. The principal assumptions utilized in Chemours’ valuation methodologies include revenue growth rates, operating margin estimates, royalty rates and discount rates. Although the estimates are deemed reasonable by management based on information available at the dates of acquisition, those estimates are inherently uncertain.
Assessment of potential impairment of property, plant and equipment, other intangible assets and investments in affiliates is an integral part of Chemours’ normal ongoing review of operations. Chemours evaluates the carrying value of long-lived assets to be held and used when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. For purposes of recognition or measurement of an impairment loss, the assessment is performed on the asset or asset group at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities. To determine the level at which the assessment is performed, Chemours considers factors such as revenue dependency, shared costs and the extent of vertical integration. The carrying value of a long-lived asset is considered impaired when the total projected undiscounted cash flows from the use and eventual disposition of asset or asset group are less than its carrying value. In that event, a loss is recognized based on the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the long-lived asset. The fair value methodology used is an estimate of fair market value which is made based on prices of similar assets or other valuation methodologies including present value techniques. Long-lived assets to be disposed of other than by sale are classified as held for use until their disposal. Long-lived assets to be disposed of by sale are classified as held for sale and are reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair market value less cost to sell. Depreciation is discontinued for long-lived assets classified as held for sale.
Testing for potential impairment of these assets is significantly dependent on numerous assumptions and reflects management’s best estimates at a particular point in time. The dynamic economic environments in which Chemours’ segments operate, and key economic and business assumptions with respect to projected selling prices, market growth and inflation rates, can significantly affect the outcome of impairment tests. Estimates based on these assumptions may differ significantly from actual results. Changes in factors and assumptions used in assessing potential impairments can have a significant impact on the existence and magnitude of impairments, as well as the time in which such impairments are recognized. In addition, Chemours continually reviews its diverse portfolio of assets to ensure they are achieving their greatest potential and are aligned with Chemours’ growth strategy. Strategic decisions involving a particular group of assets may trigger an assessment of the recoverability of the related assets. Such an assessment could result in impairment losses. During 2015, Chemours recorded a pre-tax asset impairment charge in the Chemical Solutions segment of $45 million to adjust the carrying value of its asset group to fair value. See Notes 6 and 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional details related to this charge.
Environmental Liabilities and Expenditures
Chemours accrues for remediation activities when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and a reasonable estimate of the liability can be made. Environmental liabilities and expenditures included in the Consolidated Financial Statements include claims for matters that are liabilities of DuPont and its subsidiaries, that Chemours may be required to indemnify pursuant to the separation-related agreements executed prior to the Distribution. Accruals for environmental matters are recorded in cost of goods sold when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. Accrued liabilities do not include claims against third parties and are not discounted.
Costs related to environmental remediation are charged to expense in the period incurred. Other environmental costs are also charged to expense in the period incurred, unless they increase the value of the property or reduce or prevent contamination from future operations, in which case, they are capitalized and amortized.
Litigation
Chemours accrues for litigation matters when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. Litigation liabilities and expenditures included in the Consolidated Financial Statements represent

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litigation matters that are liabilities of DuPont and its subsidiaries, that Chemours may be required to indemnify pursuant to the separation-related agreements executed prior to the Distribution. Disputes between Chemours and DuPont may arise with respect to indemnification of these matters, including disputes based on matters of law or contract interpretation. If and to the extent these disputes arise, they could materially adversely affect Chemours' results of operations. Legal costs such as outside counsel fees and expenses are charged to expense in the period services are received.
Income Taxes
Prior to July 1, 2015, income taxes as presented herein attribute current and deferred income taxes of DuPont to Chemours’ stand-alone financial statements in a manner that is systematic, rational, and consistent with the asset and liability method prescribed by Accounting Standards Codification 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740), issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Accordingly, Chemours’ income tax provision was prepared following the separate return method. The separate return method applies ASC 740 to the stand-alone financial statements of each member of the consolidated group as if the group member were a separate taxpayer and a stand-alone enterprise. As a result, actual tax transactions included in the Consolidated Financial Statements of DuPont may not be included in the separate combined financial statements of Chemours. Similarly, the tax treatment of certain items reflected in the separate combined financial statements of Chemours may not be reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements and tax returns of DuPont; therefore, such items as net operating losses, credit carryforwards, and valuation allowances may exist in the stand-alone financial statements that may or may not exist in DuPont’s Consolidated Financial Statements.
The taxable income (loss) of various Chemours entities, prior to July 1, 2015, was included in DuPont’s consolidated tax returns, where applicable, in jurisdictions around the world. As such, separate income tax returns were not prepared for many Chemours’ entities. Consequently, income taxes currently payable are deemed to have been remitted to DuPont, in cash, in the period the liability arose and income taxes currently receivable are deemed to have been received from DuPont in the period that a refund could have been recognized by Chemours had Chemours been a separate taxpayer. As described in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, the operations comprising Chemours are in various legal entities which have no direct ownership relationship. Consequently, no provision has been made for income taxes on unremitted earnings of subsidiaries and affiliates. Unremitted earnings of subsidiaries outside the U.S. are considered to be reinvested indefinitely.
The provision for income taxes is determined using the asset and liability approach of accounting for income taxes. Under this approach, deferred taxes represent the future tax consequences expected to occur when the reported amounts of assets and liabilities are recovered or paid. The provision for income taxes represents income taxes paid or payable for the current year plus the change in deferred taxes during the year. Deferred taxes result from differences between the financial and tax basis of Chemours’ assets and liabilities and are adjusted for changes in tax rates and tax laws when changes are enacted. Valuation allowances are recorded to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. In evaluating the ability to realize deferred tax assets, the Company relies on, in order of increasing subjectivity, taxable income in prior carryback years, the future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, tax planning strategies and forecasted taxable income using historical and projected future operating results.
The breadth of Chemours’ operations and the global complexity of tax regulations require assessments of uncertainties and judgments in estimating the taxes that Chemours will ultimately pay. The final taxes paid are dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in various jurisdictions, outcomes of tax litigation and resolution of disputes arising from federal, state and international tax audits in the normal course of business. A liability for unrecognized tax benefits is recorded when management concludes that the likelihood of sustaining such positions upon examination by taxing authorities is less than "more likely than not." It is Chemours’ policy to include accrued interest related to unrecognized tax benefits in other income, net and income tax related penalties to be included in the provision for income taxes.
Employee Benefits
Prior to separation, certain of Chemours' employees participated in defined benefit pension and other post-employment benefit plans (the Plans) sponsored by DuPont and accounted for by DuPont in accordance with accounting guidance for defined benefit pension and other post-employment benefit plans. Substantially all expenses related to these plans were allocated in shared entities and reported within costs of goods sold, selling, general and administrative expenses and research and development expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Chemours considered all plans to be part of a multi-employer plan with DuPont prior to January 1, 2015.
In connection with the spin-off, Chemours retained the existing Netherlands pension plan and an agreement was executed in 2015 to ensure continuance of the plan for both DuPont and Chemours employees and retirees. As a result of that agreement, Chemours now accounts for the Netherlands plan as a multiple employer plan. Additionally, in 2015, Chemours formed new pension plans

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in Taiwan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Japan, Korea and Mexico that mirror the plans historically operated by DuPont in these countries. The new plans are accounted for under the single employer method.
The amounts recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements related to pension and other long-term employee benefits plans are determined from actuarial valuations. Inherent in these valuations are assumptions including expected return on plan assets, discount rates at which liabilities could have been settled, rate of increase in future compensation levels, and mortality rates. These assumptions are updated annually and are disclosed in Note 21 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. In accordance with U.S. GAAP, actual results that differed from the assumptions are accumulated and amortized over future periods and therefore, affect expense recognized and obligations recorded in future periods.
Chemours generally utilizes discount rates that are developed by matching the expected cash flows of each benefit plan to various yield curves constructed from a portfolio of high quality, fixed income instruments provided by the plan’s actuary as of the measurement date. As of December 31, 2015, the weighted average discount rate was 2.39%.
Expected long-term rate of return on assets is determined by performing a detailed analysis of historical and expected returns based on the strategic asset allocation of the underlying asset class applicable to each country. We also consider our historical experience with the pension fund asset performance. The expected long-term rate of return is an assumption and not what is expected to be earned in any one particular year. The weighted-average long-term rate of return assumption used for determining net periodic pension expense for 2015 was 7.21%.
The estimated impact of a 50 basis point increase of the discount rate to the net periodic benefit cost for 2015 would result in an increase of $5 million, while the impact of a 50 basis point decrease of the discount rate would result in an increase of approximately $7 million. The estimated impact of a 50 basis point increase of the expected return on asset assumption on the net periodic benefit cost for 2015 would result in a decrease of approximately $6 million, while the impact of a 50 basis point decrease would result in an increase of $6 million.
Environmental Matters
Environmental Expenses
Environmental expenses charged to current operations include environmental operating costs and the increase in the remediation accrual, if any, during the period reported. As a result of its operations, Chemours incurs costs for pollution abatement activities including waste collection and disposal, installation and maintenance of air pollution controls and wastewater treatment, emissions testing and monitoring and obtaining permits. Chemours also incurs costs for environmental-related research and development activities including environmental field and treatment studies as well as toxicity and degradation testing to evaluate the environmental impact of products and raw materials. Management expects that such expenses in 2016 will be comparable to 2015 and, therefore, does not believe that year over year changes, if any, in environmental expenses charged to current operations will have a material impact on Chemours’ financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
Remediation Accrual
Annual expenditures in the near future are not expected to vary significantly from the range of such expenditures incurred during the past few years. Longer term, expenditures are subject to considerable uncertainty and may fluctuate significantly. Changes in the remediation accrual are summarized below.
(Dollars in millions)
 
 
Balance at December 31, 2013
 
$
274

Remediation Payments
 
(38
)
Increase in Remediation Accrual
 
59

Balance at December 31, 2014
 
295

Remediation Payments
 
(43
)
Increase in Remediation accrual
 
38

Balance at December 31, 2015
 
$
290

Chemours is also subject to contingencies pursuant to environmental laws and regulations that in the future may require further action to correct the effects on the environment of prior disposal practices or releases of chemical or petroleum substances by

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Chemours or other parties. Chemours accrues for environmental remediation activities consistent with the policy as described in Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Much of this liability results from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, often referred to as Superfund), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and similar state and global laws. These laws require certain investigative, remediation and restoration activities at sites where Chemours conducts or once conducted operations or at sites where Chemours-generated waste was disposed. The accrual also includes estimated costs related to a number of sites identified for which it is probable that environmental remediation will be required, but which are not currently the subject of enforcement activities.
As of December 31, 2015, Chemours, through DuPont, has been notified of potential liability under the CERCLA or similar state laws at about 174 sites around the U.S., including approximately 22 sites for which Chemours does not believe it has liability based on current information. Active remediation is under way at approximately 53 of these sites. In addition, at December 31, 2015, liability at approximately 66 sites, has been resolved either by completing remedial actions with other Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) or participating in "de minimis buyouts" with other PRPs whose waste, like Chemours’, represented only a small fraction of the total waste present at a site. The Company received notice of potential liability at two new sites through December 31, 2015. During 2014, Chemours received notice of three new sites.
At December 31, 2015, the Consolidated Balance Sheet included a liability of $290 million relating to these matters which, in management’s opinion, is appropriate based on existing facts and circumstances. The average time-frame over which the accrued or presently unrecognized amounts may be paid, based on past history, is estimated to be 15 to 20 years. Remediation activities vary substantially in duration and cost from site to site. These activities, and their associated costs, depend on the mix of unique site characteristics, evolving remediation technologies, diverse regulatory agencies and enforcement policies, as well as the presence or absence of other potentially responsible parties. In addition, Chemours, through DuPont, has limited available information for certain sites or is in the early stages of discussions with regulators. For these sites in particular there may be considerable variability between the remediation activities that are currently being undertaken or planned, as reflected in the liability recorded at December 31, 2015, and the ultimate actions that could be required.
Therefore, considerable uncertainty exists with respect to environmental remediation costs and, under adverse changes in circumstances, the potential liability may range up to approximately $611 million above the amount accrued at December 31, 2015. Except for Pompton Lakes, which is discussed further below, based on existing facts and circumstances, management does not believe that any loss, in excess of amounts accrued, related to remediation activities at any individual site will have a material impact on the financial position, liquidity or results of operations of Chemours.
Pompton Lakes
The environmental remediation accrual is $87 million at December 31, 2015 related to activities at Chemours’ site in Pompton Lakes, New Jersey. Management believes that it is reasonably possible that remediation activities at this site could range up to $119 million, including previously accrued amounts. This could have a material impact on the liquidity of Chemours in the period recognized. However, management does not believe this would have a material adverse effect on Chemours’ combined financial position, liquidity or results of operations. During the twentieth century, blasting caps, fuses and related materials were manufactured at Pompton Lakes. Operating activities at the site ceased in the mid 1990’s. Primary contaminants in the soil and sediments are lead and mercury. Ground water contaminants include volatile organic compounds.
Under the authority of the EPA and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, remedial actions at the site are focused on investigating and cleaning up the area. Ground water monitoring at the site is ongoing and Chemours, through DuPont, has installed and continues to install vapor mitigation systems at residences within the ground water plume. In addition, Chemours is further assessing ground water conditions. In June 2015, the EPA issued a modification to the site's RCRA permit that requires Chemours to dredge mercury contamination from a 36 acre area of the lake and remove sediment from 2 other areas of the lake near the shoreline. Chemours expects to spend about $50 million over the next two to three years, which is included in the remediation accrual at December 31, 2015, in connection with remediation activities at Pompton Lakes, including activities related to the EPA’s proposed plan. The Company expects these activities to begin sometime on or after mid-2016; however initiation of this work in the field is dependent upon timing of agency approval of permits and implementation plans.
Environmental Capital Expenditures
As of December 31, 2015, Chemours spent approximately $27 million on environmental capital projects either required by law or necessary to meet Chemours’ internal environmental goals. Chemours currently estimates expenditures for environmental-related capital projects to be approximately $17 million in 2016, which is included in our estimate of overall capital expenditures discussed in the Liquidity and Capital Resources section of this MD&A. In the U.S., additional capital expenditures are expected to be required over the next decade for treatment, storage and disposal facilities for solid and hazardous waste and for compliance

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with the Clean Air Act (CAA). Until all CAA regulatory requirements are established and known, considerable uncertainty will remain regarding estimates for future capital expenditures. However, management does not believe that the costs to comply with these requirements will have a material impact on the financial position or liquidity of Chemours.
Climate Change
Chemours believes that climate change is an important global issue that presents risks and opportunities. Chemours continuously evaluates opportunities for existing and new product and service offerings in light of the anticipated demands of a low-carbon economy. Our new, low GWP products are anticipated to reduce greenhouse gas content of refrigerants by 90 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent in the U.S. and greater than 300 million metric tons worldwide by 2025.
We continue to monitor legislative and regulatory developments to control or limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Depending on the scope and content, changes could affect Chemours’ energy source and supply choices, as well as increase the cost of energy and raw materials derived from fossil fuels. Such efforts are also expected to provide the business community with greater certainty for the regulatory future, help guide investment decisions, and drive growth in demand for low-carbon and energy-efficient products, technologies, and services. Similarly, demand is expected to grow for products that facilitate adaptation to a changing climate.
Several of Chemours facilities in the EU are regulated under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. In 2015, China announced a national cap and trade program to be implemented in 2017. Similarly, South Korea implemented its emission trading scheme on January 1, 2015. In the EU, U.S. and Japan, policy efforts to reduce the GHG emissions associated with gases used in refrigeration and air conditioning are creating market opportunities for new solutions to lower GHG emissions.
In May 2010, the EPA launched a phased-in scheme to regulate GHG emissions first from large stationary sources under the existing Clean Air Act permitting requirements administered by state and local authorities. As a result, large capital investments may be required to install Best Available Control Technology on major new or modified sources of GHG emissions. This type of GHG emissions regulation by the EPA, in the absence of or in addition to federal legislation, could result in more costly, less efficient facility-by-facility controls versus a federal program that incorporates policies that provide an economic balance that does not severely distort markets. In 2015, the EPA promulgated regulations for carbon dioxide emissions from new and reconstructed/modified Electric Generating Units (EGUs) and for carbon dioxide emissions from existing EGUs that would be based on individual state emission reduction programs. If these or similar regulations are enacted, they may affect the long term price and supply of electricity and natural gas and demand for products that contribute to energy efficiency and renewable energy. Chemours, as well as our suppliers and customers, could be in a competitive disadvantage by the added costs of complying with a variety of state-specific requirements.  However, the precise impact of these regulations is uncertain due to the anticipated legal challenges to this regulatory approach.
PFOA
See discussion under “PFOA” in Note 19 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We prepare our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. To supplement our financial information presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we provide the following non-GAAP financial measures, “Adjusted EBITDA”, “Adjusted Net Income” and "Free Cash Flow", in order to clarify and provide investors with a better understanding of the company’s performance when analyzing changes in our underlying business between reporting periods and provide for greater transparency with respect to supplemental information used by management in its financial and operational decision making. We utilize Adjusted EBITDA as the primary measure of segment profitability used by our Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM).
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as income (loss) before taxes excluding the following:
interest expense, depreciation and amortization,
non-operating pension and other postretirement employee benefit costs,
exchange gains (losses),
employee separation, asset-related charges and other charges, net,
asset impairments,

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gains (losses) on sale of business or assets, and
other items not considered indicative of our ongoing operational performance and expected to occur infrequently.
Adjusted net income (loss) is defined as net (loss) income attributable to Chemours adjusted for items excluded from Adjusted EBITDA except interest expense, depreciation and amortization, and certain (benefit from) provision for income taxes. Free Cash Flow is defined as cash provided by (used in) operating activities less cash used for purchases of property, plant and equipment as disclosed in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
We believe the presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures, when used in conjunction with GAAP financial measures, is a useful financial analysis tool that can assist investors in assessing the company’s operating performance and underlying prospects. This analysis should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. In the future, we may incur expenses similar to those eliminated in this presentation. Our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or infrequently occurring items. The non-GAAP financial measures we use may be defined differently from measures with the same or similar names used by other companies. This analysis, as well as the other information provide in this annual report on Form 10-K, should be read in conjunction with the company’s financial statements and notes thereto included in this report.
The following table reconciles Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Income discussed above to net income (loss) attributable to Chemours for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net (loss) income attributable to Chemours
$
(90
)
 
$
400

 
$
423

Non-operating pension and other postretirement employee benefit costs
(3
)
 
22

 
114

Exchange losses (gains)
(19
)
 
66

 
31

Restructuring charges
285

 
21

 
2

Asset impairments
73

 

 

Losses (gains) on sale of business or assets
9

 
(40
)
 

Transaction, legal and other charges
17

 

 

Benefit from income taxes relating to reconciling items 1
(129
)
 
(16
)
 
(53
)
Adjusted Net Income
143

 
453

 
517

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

 
1

 
1

Interest expense
132

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
267

 
257

 
261

All remaining provision for income taxes 1
31

 
165

 
205

Adjusted EBITDA
$
573

 
$
876

 
$
984

 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding - Basic 2
180,993,623

 
180,966,833

 
180,966,833

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding - Diluted 2
181,737,587

 
180,966,833

 
180,966,833

Adjusted earnings per common share, basic
$
0.79

 
$
2.50

 
$
2.86

Adjusted earnings per common share, diluted
$
0.79

 
$
2.50

 
$
2.86

(Loss) earnings per common share, basic
$
(0.50
)
 
$
2.21

 
$
2.34

(Loss) earnings per common share, diluted 3
$
(0.50
)
 
$
2.21

 
$
2.34

 
1 
Total of (benefit from) provision for income taxes reconciles to the amount reported in the consolidated statement of operations for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.
2 
On July 1, 2015, DuPont distributed 180,966,833 shares of Chemours' common stock to holders of its common stock. All earnings per common share amounts for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 were calculated using the shares distributed on July 1, 2015.
3 
Diluted earnings per share considers the impact of potentially dilutive shares except in periods in which there is a loss because the inclusion of the potential common shares would have an antidilutive effect. 


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Item 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 
We are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates because of our global operations. As a result, we have assets, liabilities and cash flows denominated in a variety of foreign currencies. We are also exposed to changes in the prices of certain commodities that we use in production. Changes in these rates and commodity prices may have an impact on future cash flow and earnings. We manage these risks through normal operating and financing activities and, when deemed appropriate, through the use of derivative financial instruments. We do not enter into derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
By using derivative instruments, we are subject to credit and market risk. The fair market value of the derivative instruments is determined by using valuation models whose inputs are derived using market observable inputs, and reflects the asset or liability position as of the end of each reporting period. When the fair value of a derivative contract is positive, the counterparty owes us, thus creating a receivable risk for us. We are exposed to counterparty credit risk in the event of non-performance by counterparties to our derivative agreements. We minimize counterparty credit (or repayment) risk by entering into transactions with major financial institutions of investment grade credit rating.
Foreign Currency Risks
Fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar compared to foreign currencies may impact Chemours' earnings. In 2015, Chemours entered into foreign currency forward contracts to minimize volatility in earnings related to the foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from remeasuring monetary assets and liabilities that Chemours holds which are denominated in non-functional currencies. These derivatives are stand-alone and have not been designated as a hedge. For the year ended December 31, 2015, we had open foreign exchange forward contracts with an aggregate notional U.S. dollar equivalent of $288 million, the fair value of which amounted to less than $1 million of net unrealized gain.
Prior to 2015, Chemours participated in DuPont's foreign currency hedging program to reduce earnings volatility associated with remeasurement of foreign currency denominated net monetary assets. DuPont formally documented the hedge relationships, including identification of the hedging instruments and hedged items, the risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking the hedge transactions, and the methodologies used to assess effectiveness and measure ineffectiveness. Realized gains and losses on derivative instruments of DuPont were allocated by DuPont to Chemours based on projected exposure. Chemours recognized its allocable share of the gains and losses on DuPont's derivative financial instruments in earnings when the forecasted purchases occurred for natural gas hedges and when the forecasted sales occurred for foreign currency hedges. The impact of Chemours' participation in the foreign currency hedging program was a gain of $4 million in 2014.
In July 2015, Chemours designated its €360 million Euro notes as a hedge of its net investments in certain of its international subsidiaries that use the Euro as functional currency in order to reduce the volatility in stockholders’ equity caused by the changes in foreign currency exchange rates of the Euro with respect to the U.S. dollar. Chemours uses the spot method to measure the effectiveness of the net investment hedge. Under this method, for each reporting period, the change in the carrying value of the Euro notes due to remeasurement of the effective portion is reported in accumulated other comprehensive loss in the Consolidated Balance Sheet and the remaining change in the carrying value of the ineffective portion, if any, is recognized in other income, net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Chemours evaluates the effectiveness of its net investment hedge at the beginning of every quarter.
See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on derivative financial instruments.
Sensitivity Analysis
In a hypothetical adverse change in the market prices or rates that existed at December 31, 2015, a 10% increase in the U.S. dollar against our outstanding hedged contracts on foreign currencies, such as Chinese yuan, British pound, and Brazilian real, at the currency exchange rates as of December 31, 2015 would increase our net gain by approximately $3 million, while a 10% depreciation of the U.S. Dollar against the same hedged currencies would decrease our net gain by approximately $4 million.
Chemours' risk management programs and the underlying exposure are closely correlated, such that the potential loss in value for the risk management portfolio described above would be largely offset by change in the value of the underlying exposure. See Note 20 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Chemours' sales are not dependent on any single customer. As of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, no one individual customer balance represented more than five percent of Chemours' total outstanding receivables balance. Credit risk associated with Chemours' receivables balance is representative of the geographic, industry and customer diversity associated with Chemours'

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global businesses. As a result of our customer base being widely dispersed, we do not believe our exposure to credit-related losses related to our business as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 was material.
Chemours also maintains strong credit controls in evaluating and granting customer credit. As a result, it may require that customers provide some type of financial guarantee in certain circumstances. Length of terms for customer credit varies by industry and region.
Commodities Risk
A portion of our products and raw materials are commodities whose prices fluctuate as market supply and demand fundamentals change. Accordingly, product margins and the level of our profitability tend to fluctuate with the changes in the business cycle. Chemours tries to protect against such instability through various business strategies. These include provisions in sales contracts allowing us to pass on higher raw material costs through timely price increases and formula price contracts to transfer or share commodity price risk. Chemours did not have any commodity derivative instruments in place as of December 31, 2015 or December 31, 2014.

Item 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
The financial statements and supplementary data required by this Item are included herein, commencing on page F-1 of this Annual Report.

Item 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.

Item 9A.  CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
The company maintains a system of disclosure controls and procedures to give reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in the Company's reports filed or submitted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act) is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the Securities and Exchange Commission. These controls and procedures also give reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in such reports is accumulated and communicated to management to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.
As of December 31, 2015, the Company's Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO), together with management, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Company's disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act. Based on that evaluation, the CEO and CFO concluded that these disclosure controls and procedures are effective at the reasonable assurance level referenced above.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting 
There have been no changes in the Company's internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2015 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Management Reporting on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
This annual report does not include a report of management’s assessment regarding internal control over financial reporting or an attestation report of the Company’s registered public accounting firm due to a transition period established by rules of the SEC for newly public companies.

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Item 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
None.

PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Except for information concerning executive officers, which is included in Part I of this annual report under the caption "Executive Officers of the Registrant", the information about the Company’s directors required by this Item 10 is contained under the caption “Proposal 1 - Election of Directors” in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for its 2016 annual meeting of stockholders (2016 Proxy Statement) which the Company anticipates filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates, and is incorporated herein by reference.
Information regarding the Company’s Audit Committee, code of ethics, and compliance with Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act is contained in the 2016 Proxy Statement under the captions “Corporate Governance,” “Board Structure and Committee Composition” and “Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” and is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required by this Item 11 is contained in the 2016 Proxy Statement under the captions “Executive Compensation”, “Director Compensation”, “Compensation Committee Report” and “Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation” and is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
The information required by Item 12 and not otherwise set forth below is contained in the 2016 Proxy Statement under the caption “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and is incorporated herein by reference.
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2015
(shares in thousands, except per share)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Plan Category
 
Number of securities to be issued upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
 
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights 2
 
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans 3
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
10,633

1 
$
14.66

 
11,773

 
1 Includes stock-settled time-vested and performance-based restricted stock units granted and stock units deferred under the company's Equity and Incentive Plan.
2 Represents the weighted-average exercise price of the outstanding stock options only; the outstanding stock-settled time-vested and performance-based restricted stock units and deferred stock units are not included in this calculation.
3 Reflects shares available pursuant to the issuance of stock options, restricted stock, restricted stock units or other stock-based awards under the Equity and Incentive Plan approved by our former parent prior to separation while the Company was a wholly-owned subsidiary of DuPont (see Note 22 to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information). The maximum number of shares of stock reserved for the grant or settlement of awards under the plan shall be 13,500,000 plus the number of shares of stock of the converted DuPont awards. The aggregate number of shares of stock granted during any fiscal year to any single individual (other than with regard to converted DuPont awards) shall not exceed 3,000,000.
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
The information required by Item 13 is contained in the 2016 Proxy Statement under the captions “Director Independence” and “Certain Relationships and Transactions” and is incorporated herein by reference.

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ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
The information required by Item 14 is contained in the 2016 Proxy Statement under the captions “Proposal 4 - Ratification of Selection of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm”, “Fees Paid to Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm” and “Audit Committee's Pre-Approval Policies and Procedures” and is incorporated herein by reference.

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PART IV
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
(a)(1) Financial Statements

See the Index to the Consolidated Financial Statements on page F-1 of this report.

(a)(2) Financial Statement Schedules

See Schedule II listed below.
Schedule II - Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(Dollars in millions)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Accounts Receivable - Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at beginning of period
 
$
4

 
$
7

 
$
6

Additions charged to expenses
 
1

 
1

 
2

Deductions from reserves 1
 

 
(4
)
 
(1
)
Currency translation
 
(1
)
 

 

Balance at end of period
 
$
4

 
$
4

 
$
7

Deferred Tax Assets - Valuation Allowance
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance at beginning of period
 
$
36

 
$
26

 
$
19

Net charges to income tax expense
 

 
10

 
7

Release of valuation allowance 2
 
(36
)
 

 

Balance at end of period
 
$

 
$
36

 
$
26

 
1 Bad debt write-offs were less than $1 for the year ended December 31, 2015.
2 Release of valuation allowance during 2015 was primarily related to the tax attributes retained by DuPont pursuant to the tax matters agreement.

(a)(3) Exhibits

See the Exhibit List beginning on page 61 of this report.


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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized. 
The CHEMOURS COMPANY
(Registrant)
 
 
Date:
February 25, 2016
 
 
By:
/s/ Mark E. Newman
 
 
 
Mark E. Newman
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
(As Duly Authorized Officer and Principal Financial Officer)
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
Signature
 
Title(s)
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Mark P. Vergnano
 
President, Chief Executive Officer, and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
February 25, 2016
Mark P. Vergnano
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Mark E. Newman
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)
 
February 25, 2016
Mark E. Newman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Amy P. Trojanowski
 
Vice President and Controller
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
February 25, 2016
Amy P. Trojanowski
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Richard H. Brown
 
Chairman of the Board
 
February 25, 2016
Richard H. Brown
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Curtis V. Anastasio
 
Director
 
February 25, 2016
Curtis V. Anastasio
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ Bradley J.